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Article

Loneliness and Its Associated Factors Nine Months after the COVID-19 Outbreak: A Cross-National Study

1
Department of Health and Nursing Science, Faculty of Social and Health Sciences, Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, 2418 Elverum, Norway
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Faculty of Health Studies, VID Specialized University, 4306 Sandnes, Norway
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Department of Health and Life Sciences, Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 8ST, UK
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Department of Occupational Therapy, Prosthetics and Orthotics, Faculty of Health Science, Oslo Metropolitan University, 0130 Oslo, Norway
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School of Social Work, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
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Faculty of Health and Behavioural Science, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072, Australia
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Department of Social Work, Faculty of Social Sciences, Oslo Metropolitan University, 0130 Oslo, Norway
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Andrea Fiorillo
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(6), 2841; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18062841
Received: 16 February 2021 / Revised: 8 March 2021 / Accepted: 9 March 2021 / Published: 11 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health in the Time of COVID-19)
COVID-19 has been a global healthcare concern impacting multiple aspects of individual and community wellness. As one moves forward with different methods to reduce the infection and mortality rates, it is critical to continue to study the impact that national and local “social distancing” policies have on the daily lives of individuals. The aim of this study was to examine loneliness in relation to risk assessment, measures taken against risks, concerns, and social media use, while adjusting for sociodemographic variables. The cross-sectional study collected data from 3474 individuals from the USA, the UK, Norway, and Australia. Loneliness was measured with the de Jong Gierveld Loneliness Scale. Multiple linear regression was used in the analysis of associations between variables. The results showed that concerns about finances were more strongly associated with social loneliness, while concerns about the future was more strongly associated with emotional loneliness. Longer daily time spent on social media was associated with higher emotional loneliness. In conclusion, pandemic-related concerns seem to affect perceptions of loneliness. While social media can be used productively to maintain relationships, and thereby prevent loneliness, excessive use may be counterproductive. View Full-Text
Keywords: concerns; coronavirus; cross-national study; pandemic; social distancing; social media concerns; coronavirus; cross-national study; pandemic; social distancing; social media
MDPI and ACS Style

Bonsaksen, T.; Schoultz, M.; Thygesen, H.; Ruffolo, M.; Price, D.; Leung, J.; Geirdal, A.Ø. Loneliness and Its Associated Factors Nine Months after the COVID-19 Outbreak: A Cross-National Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 2841. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18062841

AMA Style

Bonsaksen T, Schoultz M, Thygesen H, Ruffolo M, Price D, Leung J, Geirdal AØ. Loneliness and Its Associated Factors Nine Months after the COVID-19 Outbreak: A Cross-National Study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(6):2841. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18062841

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bonsaksen, Tore; Schoultz, Mariyana; Thygesen, Hilde; Ruffolo, Mary; Price, Daicia; Leung, Janni; Geirdal, Amy Ø. 2021. "Loneliness and Its Associated Factors Nine Months after the COVID-19 Outbreak: A Cross-National Study" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 18, no. 6: 2841. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18062841

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