Next Article in Journal
Development of Nationwide Excess Lifetime Cancer Risk Evaluation Methods with Comprehensive Past Asbestos Exposure Reconstruction
Previous Article in Journal
Analysis of Korean Fencing Club Members’ Participation Intention Using the TPB Model
Open AccessArticle

Rural–Urban Differences in the Factors Affecting Depressive Symptoms among Older Adults of Two Regions in Myanmar

1
Department of International Health and Collaboration, National Institute of Public Health, Wako City 351-0197, Japan
2
Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Niigata University, Niigata City 951-8510, Japan
3
National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Bureau of International Health Cooperation, Tokyo 162-8655, Japan
4
Department of Health and Social Behavior, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan
5
Department of Family Medicine, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo 113-8510, Japan
6
Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
7
Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, University of Medicine 1, Yangon 245, Myanmar
8
Vice President, National Institute of Public Health, Wako City 351-0197, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(6), 2818; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18062818
Received: 26 December 2020 / Revised: 27 February 2021 / Accepted: 1 March 2021 / Published: 10 March 2021
The aim of the study was to investigate rural–urban differences in depressive symptoms in terms of the risk factors among older adults of two regions in Myanmar to provide appropriate intervention for depression depending on local characteristics. This cross-sectional study, conducted between September and December, 2018, used a multistage sampling method to recruit participants from the two regions, for face-to-face interviews. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the 15-item version of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). Depressive symptoms were positively associated with living in rural areas (B = 0.42; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.12,0.72), female (B = 0.55; 95% CI: 0.31,0.79), illness during the preceding year (B = 0.68; 95% CI: 0.45,0.91) and non-Buddhist religion (B = 0.57; 95% CI: 0.001,1.15) and protectively associated with education to middle school level or higher (B = −0.61; 95% CI: −0.94, −0.28) and the frequency of visits to religious facilities (B = −0.20; 95% CI: −0.30, −0.10). In women in urban areas, depressive symptoms were positively associated with illness during the preceding year (B = 0.78; 95% CI: 0.36, 1.20) and protectively associated with education to middle school level or higher (B = −0.67; 95% CI: −1.23, −0.11), middle or high wealth index (B = −0.92; 95% CI: −1.59, −0.25) and the frequency of visits to religious facilities (B = −0.20; 95% CI: −0.38, −0.03). In men in rural areas, illness during the preceding year was positively associated with depressive symptoms (B = 0.87; 95% CI: 0.33, 1.42). In women in rural areas, depressive symptoms were positively associated with illness during the preceding year (B = 0.83; 95% CI: 0.36, 1.30) and protectively associated with primary education (B = −0.62; 95% CI: −1.12, −0.12) and the frequency of visits to religious facilities (B = −0.44; 95% CI: −0.68, −0.21). Religion and wealth could have different levels of association with depression between older adults in the urban and rural areas and men and women. Interventions for depression in older adults should consider regional and gender differences in the roles of religion and wealth in Myanmar. View Full-Text
Keywords: depressive symptom; older adult; urban and rural area; gender differences; Myanmar depressive symptom; older adult; urban and rural area; gender differences; Myanmar
MDPI and ACS Style

Sasaki, Y.; Shobugawa, Y.; Nozaki, I.; Takagi, D.; Nagamine, Y.; Funato, M.; Chihara, Y.; Shirakura, Y.; Lwin, K.T.; Zin, P.E.; Bo, T.Z.; Sone, T.; Win, H.H. Rural–Urban Differences in the Factors Affecting Depressive Symptoms among Older Adults of Two Regions in Myanmar. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 2818. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18062818

AMA Style

Sasaki Y, Shobugawa Y, Nozaki I, Takagi D, Nagamine Y, Funato M, Chihara Y, Shirakura Y, Lwin KT, Zin PE, Bo TZ, Sone T, Win HH. Rural–Urban Differences in the Factors Affecting Depressive Symptoms among Older Adults of Two Regions in Myanmar. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(6):2818. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18062818

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sasaki, Yuri; Shobugawa, Yugo; Nozaki, Ikuma; Takagi, Daisuke; Nagamine, Yuiko; Funato, Masafumi; Chihara, Yuki; Shirakura, Yuki; Lwin, Kay T.; Zin, Poe E.; Bo, Thae Z.; Sone, Tomofumi; Win, Hla H. 2021. "Rural–Urban Differences in the Factors Affecting Depressive Symptoms among Older Adults of Two Regions in Myanmar" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 18, no. 6: 2818. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18062818

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop