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Article

Smokers Are More Likely to Smoke More after the COVID-19 California Lockdown Order

1
Nicotine and Cannabis Policy Center, University of California, Merced, CA 95343, USA
2
Department of Public Health, School of Social Sciences, Humanities, and Arts, University of California, Merced, CA 95343, USA
3
Department of Psychological Sciences, School of Social Sciences, Humanities, and Arts, University of California, Merced, CA 95343, USA
4
Division of Adolescent Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94304, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Frank Doyle
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(5), 2582; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18052582
Received: 9 February 2021 / Revised: 24 February 2021 / Accepted: 27 February 2021 / Published: 5 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smoking, Vaping and COVID-19)
To determine if cigarette smoking, electronic cigarette use, and rate of consumption of these products differed before and after a pandemic lockdown order, two convenience samples of adults in Central California were recruited and surveyed before (March 2020) and after (May 2020) COVID-19 lockdown orders were implemented in California (n = 2571). Multivariable logistic and negative binomial regression models tested the association between adults recruited pre- or post-California lockdown and past month cigarette use, past month electronic cigarette use, past month cigarette consumption, and past month e-cigarette consumption among current users, controlling for demographic differences. Adults pre- and post-lockdown had equal odds of using cigarettes during the past month. Cigarette users who responded post-lockdown had higher cigarette consumption rates compared to cigarette users who responded pre-lockdown (IRR = 1.13, 95% CI = 1.15, 1.23). Adults who responded post-lockdown had lower odds of using electronic cigarettes during the past month compared to participants surveyed before the order (OR = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.55, 0.78). Cigarette users may be using more cigarettes during the state mandated lockdown. Possible causes for this increase in cigarette use may include increased stress, the change in workplace smokefree protections coverage, and increased opportunities for smoking or vaping. View Full-Text
Keywords: COVID-19; tobacco products; cigarette smoking; vaping; electronic nicotine delivery systems; California COVID-19; tobacco products; cigarette smoking; vaping; electronic nicotine delivery systems; California
MDPI and ACS Style

Gonzalez, M.; Epperson, A.E.; Halpern-Felsher, B.; Halliday, D.M.; Song, A.V. Smokers Are More Likely to Smoke More after the COVID-19 California Lockdown Order. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 2582. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18052582

AMA Style

Gonzalez M, Epperson AE, Halpern-Felsher B, Halliday DM, Song AV. Smokers Are More Likely to Smoke More after the COVID-19 California Lockdown Order. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(5):2582. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18052582

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gonzalez, Mariaelena, Anna E. Epperson, Bonnie Halpern-Felsher, Deanna M. Halliday, and Anna V. Song. 2021. "Smokers Are More Likely to Smoke More after the COVID-19 California Lockdown Order" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 5: 2582. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18052582

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