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Open AccessArticle

Estimating the Characteristics and Emission Factor of Ammonia from Sewage Sludge Incinerator

1
Climate Change & Environment Research Center, Sejong University, Seoul 05006, Korea
2
Department of Climate and Environment, Sejong University, Seoul 05006, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(5), 2539; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18052539
Received: 5 February 2021 / Revised: 2 March 2021 / Accepted: 2 March 2021 / Published: 4 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Air)
In the case of sewage sludge, as direct landfilling was recently prohibited, it is treated through incineration. Among the air pollutants discharged through the incineration of sewage sludge, NOx and SOx are considered secondary substances of PM2.5 and are being managed accordingly. However, NH3, another of the secondary substances of PM2.5, is not well managed, and the amount of NH3 discharged from sewage sludge incineration facilities has not been calculated. Therefore, in this study, we sought to determine whether NH3 is discharged in the exhaust gas of a sewage sludge incineration facility, and, when discharged, the NH3 emission factor was calculated, and the necessity of the development of the emission factor was reviewed. As a result of the study, it was confirmed that the amount of NH3 discharged from the sewage sludge incineration facility was 0.04 to 4.47 ppm, and the emission factor was calculated as 0.002 kg NH3/ton. The NH3 emission factor was compared with the NH3 emission factor of municipal solid waste proposed by EMEP/EEA (European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme/European Environment Agency) because the NH3 emission factor of the sewage sludge incineration facility had not been previously determined. As a result of the comparison, the NH3 emission factor of EMEP/EEA was similar to that of municipal solid waste, confirming the necessity of developing the NH3 emission factor of the sewage sludge incineration facility. In addition, the evaluation of the uncertainty of the additionally calculated NH3 emission factor was conducted quantitatively and the uncertainty range was presented for reference. In the future, it is necessary to improve the reliability of the NH3 emission factor of sewage sludge incineration facilities by performing additional analysis with statistical representation. In addition, the development of NH3 emission factors for industrial waste incineration facilities should be undertaken. View Full-Text
Keywords: PM 2.5 secondary sources; sewage sludge incinerator; uncertainty; missing sources; ammonia emission factor PM 2.5 secondary sources; sewage sludge incinerator; uncertainty; missing sources; ammonia emission factor
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kang, S.; Roh, J.; Jeon, E.-C. Estimating the Characteristics and Emission Factor of Ammonia from Sewage Sludge Incinerator. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 2539. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18052539

AMA Style

Kang S, Roh J, Jeon E-C. Estimating the Characteristics and Emission Factor of Ammonia from Sewage Sludge Incinerator. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(5):2539. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18052539

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kang, Seongmin; Roh, Joonyoung; Jeon, Eui-Chan. 2021. "Estimating the Characteristics and Emission Factor of Ammonia from Sewage Sludge Incinerator" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 18, no. 5: 2539. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18052539

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