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Microvascular Dysfunction in Peripheral Artery Disease: Is Heat Therapy a Viable Treatment?

1
School of Health and Kinesiology, University of Nebraska at Omaha, Omaha, NE 68182, USA
2
Department of Biomechanics, University of Nebraska at Omaha, Omaha, NE 68182, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Arpita Basu
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(5), 2384; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18052384
Received: 9 December 2020 / Revised: 9 February 2021 / Accepted: 25 February 2021 / Published: 1 March 2021
Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is characterized by the development of atherosclerotic plaques in the lower-body conduit arteries. PAD is commonly accompanied by microvascular disease, which may result in poor wound healing, plantar ulcer development, and subsequent limb amputation. Understanding the mechanisms underlying the development of plantar ulcers is a critical step in the development of adequate treatment options for patients with PAD. Skin is classified into two major components: glabrous and non-glabrous. These skin types have unique microcirculation characteristics, making it important to differentiate between the two when investigating mechanisms for plantar ulcer development in PAD. There is evidence for a microcirculation compensatory mechanism in PAD. This is evident by the maintenance of basal microcirculation perfusion and capillary filling pressure despite a reduced pressure differential beyond an occlusion in non-critical limb ischemia PAD. The major mechanism for this compensatory system seems to be progressive vasodilation of the arterial network below an occlusion. Recently, heat therapies have emerged as novel treatment options for attenuating the progression of PAD. Heat therapies are capable of stimulating the cardiovascular system, which may lead to beneficial adaptations that may ultimately reduce fatigue during walking in PAD. Early work in this area has shown that full-body heating is capable of generating an acute cardiovascular response, similar to exercise, which has been suggested as the most efficient treatment modality and may generate adaptations with chronic exposure. Heat therapies may emerge as a conservative treatment option capable of attenuating the progression of PAD and ultimately impeding the development of plantar ulcers. View Full-Text
Keywords: atherosclerosis; endothelial dysfunction; microcirculation; peripheral vascular disease atherosclerosis; endothelial dysfunction; microcirculation; peripheral vascular disease
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MDPI and ACS Style

Anderson, C.P.; Pekas, E.J.; Park, S.-Y. Microvascular Dysfunction in Peripheral Artery Disease: Is Heat Therapy a Viable Treatment? Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 2384. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18052384

AMA Style

Anderson CP, Pekas EJ, Park S-Y. Microvascular Dysfunction in Peripheral Artery Disease: Is Heat Therapy a Viable Treatment? International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(5):2384. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18052384

Chicago/Turabian Style

Anderson, Cody P.; Pekas, Elizabeth J.; Park, Song-Young. 2021. "Microvascular Dysfunction in Peripheral Artery Disease: Is Heat Therapy a Viable Treatment?" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 18, no. 5: 2384. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18052384

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