Six Key Advantages and Disadvantages of Working from Home in Europe during COVID-19
1.1. Distance Work, Telework and WFH
1.2. Knowledge Workers and WFH
2. Materials and Methods
- Their current work situation
- The advantages of WFH
- The disadvantages of WFH
- The use of digital work tools
- Demographic information
- Their overall life situation
2.4. Data Analysis
3.1. Overview of Advantages and Disadvantages of WFH
3.2. Finding the Key Factors in the WFH Experience
3.3. How the Respondents’ Characteristics Related to the Advantages and Disadvantages
4.1. Overall Experiences of WFH during COVID-19
4.2. The Six Factors
4.3. Practical Implications of the Six Factors
4.4. WFH Post-COVID-19
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Gender, N (%)||Country, N (%)|
|Female||3404 (59.2)||Austria||425 (7.4)|
|Male||2253 (39.2)||Belgium||26 (0.5)|
|Other||19 (0.3)||Denmark||1338 (23.3)|
|Prefer not to say||72 (1.3)||Finland||176 (3.1)|
|Age (years), N (%)||Germany||1328 (23.1)|
|18–20||5 (0.1)||Iceland||17 (0.3)|
|21–30||744 (12.9)||Italy||877 (15.3)|
|31–40||1561 (27.2)||Netherlands||259 (4.5)|
|41–50||1708 (29.7)||Norway||12 (0.2)|
|51–60||1357 (23.6)||Spain||286 (5.0)|
|>60||349 (6.1)||Sweden||834 (14.5)|
|Prefer not to say||24 (0.4)||Switzerland||24 (0.4)|
|Highest level of education, N (%)||United Kingdom||108 (1.9)|
|No schooling completed||1 (0.0)||Other European countries||36 (0.6)|
|Primary education||22 (0.4)||No. of children younger than 15 at home, N (%)|
|Secondary education||142 (2.5)||0||3720 (64.7)|
|Vocational training||392 (6.8)||1||931 (16.2)|
|Associate degree||623 (10.8)||2||898 (15.6)|
|Bachelor’s degree||820 (14.3)||3||160 (2.8)|
|Master’s degree||2585 (45.0)||missing||39 (0.7)|
|Doctorate degree||916 (15.9)||No. of people including yourself at home, N (%)|
|Other not listed degree||215 (2.7)||1||1578 (27.5)|
|Kind of work, multiple answers possible, N (%)||2||1861 (32.4)|
|Administrative work||2207 (38.4)||3||1017 (17.7)|
|Research||1187 (20.7)||4||938 (16.3)|
|Develop systems, plans||1048 (18.2)||5 or more||290 (5.0)|
|Manager||1324 (23.0)||Missing||64 (1.1)|
|Communication||671 (11.7)||Work from home since COVID-19, N (%)|
|Teaching/supervision||1028 (17.9)||Only work from home||4835 (84.1)|
|Marketing and sales||326 (5.7)||Sometimes from home||913 (15.9)|
|System monitoring||376 (6.5)|
|Creative production||242 (4.2)|
|A: I contribute to lowering the risk of spreading COVID-19.||4.60||0.72|
|B: I get time to focus on my work without interruptions from other people.||3.48||1.23|
|C: It is possible for me to do some other work that I would normally not have time to do.||3.05||1.21|
|D: I do not have to spend time in long meetings.||2.98||1.21|
|E: I can take a break when I want to.||3.66||1.08|
|F: I can be close to my family and friends.||3.41||1.23|
|G: I like the atmosphere in my home better than at work.||2.93||1.07|
|H: I can eat and drink my own food.||3.80||1.06|
|I: I have no one looking over me.||2.73||1.13|
|J: I save on the normal commute time to my workplace.||4.37||0.94|
|K: I do not expose myself to the risk of getting a disease.||4.38||0.81|
|L: I have a chance to break my old habits and change my routines.||3.29||1.09|
|M: It is easier to get in contact with people than normal.||2.52||1.06|
|A: I do not get to see my colleagues or other people as much as I would like to.||3.83||1.12|
|B: I need physical equipment that I do not have access to at home to do my work.||2.71||1.30|
|C: I need data or documents that I do not have access to at home to do my work.||2.21||1.20|
|D: I find it difficult to keep focused on my work when I am alone.||2.04||1.14|
|E: I don’t know what kind of work I should do.||1.58||0.86|
|F: I miss the food or other benefits that we have at my workplace.||2.19||1.24|
|G: It is a financial problem for my work that I cannot be at the workplace.||1.73||0.96|
|H: I get disturbed by other people in my home.||2.52||1.36|
|I: I miss getting out of my home.||3.67||1.24|
|J: I do not get enough exercise when I am not at my workplace.||3.06||1.37|
|K: The work I do from home is not as interesting as the work I do at my workplace.||2.19||1.18|
|L: I am afraid that there will not be enough work for me to do from home.||1.88||1.08|
|M: The physical conditions in my home do not afford a good working environment (adjustable table and chair, enough light, quietness, good monitor, etc.).||3.06||1.42|
|N: It requires more effort from me because I cannot use my normal routines.||2.52||1.21|
|O: I feel tied to my computer to a greater extent than when at my workplace.||3.11||1.34|
|P: I am concerned that there are work tasks I want to do but cannot do from home.||2.44||1.26|
|Factor Description||Factor/Items||Factor Loading (Development Group)||Factor Loading (Test Group)||Cronbach’s Alpha (Development Group)||Cronbach’s|
Alpha (Test Group)
|Clusters of advantages of working from home|
|AF 1: Work–life balance|
Instead of going to work and wasting commute time, you can enjoy the atmosphere at home, change routines and have more time for your social life.
|G: I like the atmosphere in my home better…||0.650||0.598||0.59||0.58|
|J: I save on the normal commute time…||0.617||0.559|
|M: It is easier to get in contact with people…||0.592||0.659|
|L: I break my old habits and change my routines.||0.525||0.577|
|F: I can be close to my family and friends.||0.374||0.413|
|AF 2: Work efficiency|
Instead of spending time on meetings and wasting time on meaningless tasks at work, you can focus on your tasks without interruptions.
|D: I do not have to spend time in long meetings…||0.717||0.710|
|C: It is possible for me to do some other work…|
B: I have time to focus on my work …
|AF 3: Work control|
Instead of being controlled, you can take a break when you want and have more control over your day.
|I: I have no one looking over me.||0.775||0.730|
|E: I can take a break when I want.||0.609||0.616||0.53||0.55|
|H: I can eat and drink my own food.||0.532||0.637|
|Clusters of disadvantages of working from home|
|DF 1: Home office constraints|
Instead of a life with social interaction and exercise, you have limited contact with people, get out of the home less, are more fixed in front of the computer and get disturbed by others at home.
|I: I miss getting out of my home.||0.683||0.715|
|A: I do not get to see my colleagues … as much…||0.614||0.647|
|J: I do not get enough exercise…||0.598||0.646|
|M: The physical conditions in my home do not afford…||0.596||0.543||0.73||0.74|
|F: I miss the food or other benefits … at my workplace.||0.517||0.512|
|N: It requires more effort from me that I cannot use my normal routines.||0.516||0.503|
|O: I feel tied to my computer to a greater extent …||0.475||0.494|
|H: I get disturbed by other people in my home.||0.473||0.432|
|DF 2: Work uncertainties|
Instead of finding meaning in work, the work situation is unclear as there is not enough to do, the remaining tasks are not interesting, financial problems might occur and you cannot focus on your work.
|L: I am afraid that there will not be enough work…||0.750||0.789|
|E: I don’t know what kind of work I should do.||0.712||0.715|
|K: The work I do from home is not as interesting …||0.648||0.684||0.71||0.72|
|G: It is a financial problem for my work…||0.548||0.489|
|D: I find it difficult to keep focused on my work…||0.502||0.512|
|DF 3: Inadequate tools|
Instead of having easy access to what you need to perform your work, you lose the valuable work tools, data and documents required to do your work adequately.
|B: I need physical equipment … to do my work.||0.822||0.784|
|C: I need data or documents … to do my work.||0.778||0.782||0.71||0.69|
|P: …there are work tasks I… cannot do from home.||0.570||0.567|
|AF 1: Work–life balance||3.30 (0.67)||3.31 (0.65)||−0.250||0.802||0.66231|
|AF 2: Work efficiency||3.12 (0.93)||3.24 (0.88)||−4.644||0.000 **||0.91149|
|AF 3: Work control||3.39 (0.79)||3.39 (0.78)||−0.179||0.858||0.78800|
|DF 1: Home office constraints||3.07 (0.77)||2.90 (0.75)||8.197||0.000 **||0.76107|
|DF 2: Work uncertainties||1.88 (0.73)||1.90 (0.71)||−1.051||0.293||0.71963|
|DF 3: Inadequate tools||2.49 (0.99)||2.39 (0.99)||3.725||0.000 **||0.98910|
|No Children, Mean (SD)||Children at Home, |
|AF 1: Work–life balance||3.25 (0.67)||3.4 (0.64)||−7.951||0.000 **||0.66035|
|AF 2: Work efficiency||3.29 (0.87)||2.95 (0.96)||13.206||0.000 **||0.90018|
|AF 3: Work control||3.43 (0.79)||3.32 (0.78)||5.352||0.000 **||0.78561|
|DF 1: Home office constraints||2.92 (0.75)||3.13 (0.79)||−10.133||0.000 **||0.7593|
|DF 2: Work uncertainties||1.90 (0.74)||1.84 (0.68)||3.156||0.002 **||0.71886|
|DF 3: Inadequate tools||2.48 (1.00)||2.41 (0.97)||2.619||0.009 **||0.99027|
|18–30 Years, |
|31–50 Years, |
|>50 Years, |
|AF 1: Work–life balance||3.22 (0.71)||3.35 (0.67)||3.26 (0.62)||18.711||0.000 **||0.007|
|AF 2: Work efficiency||3.23 (0.9)||3.11 (0.95)||3.25 (0.84)||15.850||0.000 **||0.006|
|AF 3: Work control||3.60 (0.77)||3.37 (0.80)||3.35 (0.76)||30.658||0.000 **||0.011|
|DF 1: Home office constraints||3.07 (0.75)||3.02 (0.79)||2.92 (0.73)||14.413||0.000 **||0.005|
|DF 2: Work uncertainties||2.95 (0.78)||1.84 (0.70)||1.9 (0.72)||26.440||0.000 **||0.009|
|DF 3: Inadequate tools||2.37 (0.98)||2.39 (0.98)||2.6 (1.00)||28.269||0.000 **||0.010|
|AF 1: Work–life balance||3.32 (0.67)||3.26 (0.63)||3.040||0.002 **||0.66360|
|AF 2: Work efficiency||3.21 (0.91)||3.05 (0.93)||5.573||0.000 **||0.91271|
|AF 3: Work control||3.43 (0.78)||3.28 (0.79)||5.889||0.000 **||0.78508|
|DF 1: Home office constraints||2.98 (0.77)||3.04 (0.74)||−2.519||0.012 **||0.76577|
|DF 2: Work uncertainties||1.91 (0.73)||1.79 (0.66)||6.018||0.000 **||0.71726|
|DF 3: Inadequate tools||2.49 (1.00)||2.34 (0.93)||4.939||0.000 **||0.99046|
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Ipsen, C.; van Veldhoven, M.; Kirchner, K.; Hansen, J.P. Six Key Advantages and Disadvantages of Working from Home in Europe during COVID-19. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 1826. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18041826
Ipsen C, van Veldhoven M, Kirchner K, Hansen JP. Six Key Advantages and Disadvantages of Working from Home in Europe during COVID-19. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(4):1826. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18041826Chicago/Turabian Style
Ipsen, Christine, Marc van Veldhoven, Kathrin Kirchner, and John Paulin Hansen. 2021. "Six Key Advantages and Disadvantages of Working from Home in Europe during COVID-19" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 4: 1826. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18041826