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Article

Blood Lead Level in a Paediatric Population of South-Eastern Spain and Associated Risk Factors

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Departament of Pediatric, Rafael Méndez University Hospital, 30813 Lorca, Spain
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Departament of Pediatric, Torrecárdenas University Hospital, 04009 Almería, Spain
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Departament of Pediatric, Santa Lucia University Hospital, 30202 Cartegena, Spain
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Departamento of Clinic Analysis, Torrecardenas University Hospital, 04009 Almeria, Spain
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(4), 1825; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18041825
Received: 17 January 2021 / Revised: 7 February 2021 / Accepted: 10 February 2021 / Published: 13 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Children's Health)
Objective: To determine blood lead levels (BLL) in a healthy paediatric population and to analyse related sociodemographic, dietary and haematological factors. Methods: A cross-sectional study was made of 1427 healthy subjects aged 1–16 years from the city of Almería (south-eastern Spain). BLL, iron parameters and erythropoietin were determined, and sociodemographic and dietary data obtained. The study paramateters was analyses in BLL toxic and BLL no toxic group by multiple logistic regression. Results: The mean BLL was 1.98 ± 1.1 µg/dL (95% CI:1.91–2.04). For 5.7% of the population, mean BLL was 2–5 µg/dL, for 2.1% it was >5 µg/dL and for 0.15% it was >10 µg/dL. Multivariate analysis showed that immigrant origin (OR:11.9; p < 0.0001), low level of parental education (OR:4.6; p < 0.02) and low dietary iron bioavailability (OR: 3.2; p < 0.02) were all risk factors for toxic BLL. Subjects with toxic and non-toxic BLL presented similar iron and erythropoiesis-related parameters, except erythrocyte protoporphyrin, which was significantly higher in the BLL >5 µg/dL group. Conclusions: BLL and the prevalence of toxic BLL in healthy subjects aged 1–16 years living in south-eastern Spain are low and similar to those found in other developed countries. The factors associated with toxic BLL are immigrant origin, low level of parental education and dietary iron deficiency. The toxicity of BLL was not related to changes in the analytical parameters studied. View Full-Text
Keywords: lead; lead poisoning; paediatrics population; sociodemografic factor; iron deficincy; erythropoyesis; Spain lead; lead poisoning; paediatrics population; sociodemografic factor; iron deficincy; erythropoyesis; Spain
MDPI and ACS Style

Ruiz-Tudela, L.; Vázquez-López, M.A.; García-Escobar, I.; Cabrera-Sevilla, J.E.; Gómez-Bueno, S.; Martín-Gonzalez, M.; Muñoz-Vico, F.J. Blood Lead Level in a Paediatric Population of South-Eastern Spain and Associated Risk Factors. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 1825. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18041825

AMA Style

Ruiz-Tudela L, Vázquez-López MA, García-Escobar I, Cabrera-Sevilla JE, Gómez-Bueno S, Martín-Gonzalez M, Muñoz-Vico FJ. Blood Lead Level in a Paediatric Population of South-Eastern Spain and Associated Risk Factors. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(4):1825. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18041825

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ruiz-Tudela, Lucía, Maria A. Vázquez-López, Iciar García-Escobar, Jose E. Cabrera-Sevilla, Sara Gómez-Bueno, Manuel Martín-Gonzalez, and Francisco J. Muñoz-Vico 2021. "Blood Lead Level in a Paediatric Population of South-Eastern Spain and Associated Risk Factors" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 4: 1825. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18041825

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