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Article

Association Between PM2.5 Exposure Level and Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma in Taiwanese Adults: A Nested Case–control Study

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Department of Optometry, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung 40201, Taiwan
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Department of Ophthalmology, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung 40201, Taiwan
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Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung 40201, Taiwan
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Department of Pharmacy, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung 40201, Taiwan
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Department of life sciences, National Chung-Hsing University, Taichung 402204, Taiwan
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Department of Veterinary Medicine, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402204, Taiwan
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School of Medical Applied Chemistry, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung 40201, Taiwan
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School of Public Health, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung 40201, Taiwan
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Department of Education and Research, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung 40705, Taiwan
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Chunrong Jia 
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(4), 1714; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18041714
Received: 11 January 2021 / Revised: 2 February 2021 / Accepted: 5 February 2021 / Published: 10 February 2021
Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is the most common type of glaucoma. However, little is known about POAG in adults and exposure to air pollution. The current study aims to investigate whether exposure to particulate matter with a mass median aerodynamic diameter of ≤2.5 μm (PM2.5) is associated with POAG diagnosis. Patient data were obtained from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2010 (LHID2010) of Taiwan for the 2008–2013 period. PM2.5 concentration data, collected from the Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Network established by the Environmental Protection Administration of Taiwan, were categorized into four groups according to World Health Organization (WHO) exposure standards for PM2.5. We estimated the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs for risk factors for POAG with logistic regression. The OR of per WHO standard level increase was 1.193 (95% CI 1.050–1.356). Compared with the normal level, the OR of WHO 2.0 level was 1.668 (95% CI 1.045–2.663, P < 0.05). After excluding confounding risk factors for POAG in this study, we determined that increased PM2.5 exposure is related to POAG risk (ORs > 1, P < 0.05). In this study, PM2.5 was an independent factor associated with open-angle glaucoma. Further research is required to better understand the mechanisms connecting PM2.5 and open-angle glaucoma. View Full-Text
Keywords: PM2.5; primary open-angle glaucoma; Taiwanese adults; nested case–control study PM2.5; primary open-angle glaucoma; Taiwanese adults; nested case–control study
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sun, H.-Y.; Luo, C.-W.; Chiang, Y.-W.; Li, K.-L.Y.Y.-C.; Ho, Y.-C.; Lee, S.-S.; Chen, W.-Y.; Chen, C.-J.; Kuan, Y.-H. Association Between PM2.5 Exposure Level and Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma in Taiwanese Adults: A Nested Case–control Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 1714. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18041714

AMA Style

Sun H-Y, Luo C-W, Chiang Y-W, Li K-LYY-C, Ho Y-C, Lee S-S, Chen W-Y, Chen C-J, Kuan Y-H. Association Between PM2.5 Exposure Level and Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma in Taiwanese Adults: A Nested Case–control Study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(4):1714. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18041714

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sun, Han-Yin, Ci-Wen Luo, Yun-Wei Chiang, Kun-Lin Y.Y.-C. Li, Yung-Chung Ho, Shiuan-Shinn Lee, Wen-Ying Chen, Chun-Jung Chen, and Yu-Hsiang Kuan. 2021. "Association Between PM2.5 Exposure Level and Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma in Taiwanese Adults: A Nested Case–control Study" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 4: 1714. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18041714

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