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Review

The Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Immunization Campaigns and Programs: A Systematic Review

1
Robinson Research Institute, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia
2
Division of Women and Child Health, The Aga Khan University, Karachi 74500, Pakistan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(3), 988; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18030988
Received: 22 October 2020 / Revised: 7 January 2021 / Accepted: 20 January 2021 / Published: 22 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Global Health)
The COVID-19 pandemic has had an impact on health service delivery, including immunization programs, and this review assesses the impact on vaccine coverage across the globe and identifies the potential underlying factors. A systematic search strategy was employed on PubMed, Embase, MedRxiv, BioRxiv, and WHO COVID-19 databases from December 2019 till 15 September 2020. Two review authors independently assessed studies for inclusion, assessed quality, and extracted the data (PROSPERO registration #CRD42020182363). A total of 17 observational studies were included. The findings suggest that there was a reduction in the vaccination coverage and decline in total number of vaccines administered, which led to children missing out on their vaccine doses. An approximately fourfold increase was also observed in polio cases in polio endemic countries. Factors contributing to low vaccine coverage included fear of being exposed to the virus at health care facilities, restriction on city-wide movements, shortage of workers, and diversion of resources from child health to address the pandemic. As the world re-strategizes for the post-2020 era, we should not let a crisis go to waste as they provide an opportunity to establish guidelines and allocate resources for future instances. High-quality supplementary immunization activities and catch-up programs need to be established to address gaps during the pandemic era. View Full-Text
Keywords: immunization; vaccination; coronavirus; COVID-19; polio immunization; vaccination; coronavirus; COVID-19; polio
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lassi, Z.S.; Naseem, R.; Salam, R.A.; Siddiqui, F.; Das, J.K. The Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Immunization Campaigns and Programs: A Systematic Review. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 988. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18030988

AMA Style

Lassi ZS, Naseem R, Salam RA, Siddiqui F, Das JK. The Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Immunization Campaigns and Programs: A Systematic Review. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(3):988. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18030988

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lassi, Zohra S., Rabia Naseem, Rehana A. Salam, Faareha Siddiqui, and Jai K. Das 2021. "The Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Immunization Campaigns and Programs: A Systematic Review" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 3: 988. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18030988

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