Housing is one of the social determinants of health and the most basic survival needs of human beings. Many studies have preliminarily confirmed that housing factors can influence residents’ health. The aims of this study were: to evaluate the housing factors associated with self-rated health and mental health among Chinese residents; to explore the regional heterogeneity of the impact of housing on health; and to assess the effects of housing on health among different age groups. Data was derived from the Chinese General Social Survey (CGSS). Housing factors were analyzed along six dimensions: housing property, living space, number of living people, number of houses, living region and housing price. Self-rated health and mental health were used to measure health outcomes. Multivariate ordered logistic regression was performed to assess the relationship between housing and health. The living space, living region and housing price was significantly associated with self-rated health. The number of living people living region and housing price were related to mental health. The influence of housing factors on health were more pronounced among residents living in eastern and central area and among the middle-aged group (41–65). Present findings support the notion that housing factors were related to health outcomes. Future studies may focus on the impact of interventions that target on these factors, and the impact of housing on health among special groups such as migrant population and low-and-middle income families.
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