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Article

The Effect of Continuous Low-Intensity Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields from Radio Base Stations to Cancer Mortality in Brazil

1
Sérgio Arouca National School of Public Health, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Rio de Janeiro 21041-210, Brazil
2
Institute of Social Medicine, Rio de Janeiro State University, Rio de Janeiro 20550-900, Brazil
3
Instituto Metodista Izabela Hendrix, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais 30160-012, Brazil
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Medical Sciences College, Rio de Janeiro State University, Rio de Janeiro 20550-170, Brazil
5
Federal Center for Technological Education Celso Suckow da Fonseca, Rio de Janeiro 20271-110, Brazil
6
Petrobras, Rio de Janeiro 20031-912, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(3), 1229; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18031229
Received: 10 December 2020 / Revised: 18 January 2021 / Accepted: 23 January 2021 / Published: 29 January 2021
Background: this study aims to estimate the rate of death by cancer as a result of Radio Base Station (RBS) radiofrequency exposure, especially for breast, cervix, lung, and esophagus cancers. Methods: we collected information on the number of deaths by cancer, gender, age group, gross domestic product per capita, death year, and the amount of exposure over a lifetime. We investigated all cancer types and some specific types (breast, cervix, lung, and esophagus cancers). Results: in capitals where RBS radiofrequency exposure was higher than 2000/antennas-year, the average mortality rate was 112/100,000 for all cancers. The adjusted analysis showed that, the higher the exposure to RBS radiofrequency, the higher cancer mortality was. The highest adjusted risk was observed for cervix cancer (rate ratio = 2.18). The spatial analysis showed that the highest RBS radiofrequency exposure was observed in a city in southern Brazil that also showed the highest mortality rate for all types of cancer and specifically for lung and breast cancer. Conclusion: the balance of our results indicates that exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields from RBS increases the rate of death for all types of cancer. View Full-Text
Keywords: cancer; mortality; electromagnetic fields; breast neoplasms; lung neoplasms; esophageal neoplasms; uterine cervical neoplasms cancer; mortality; electromagnetic fields; breast neoplasms; lung neoplasms; esophageal neoplasms; uterine cervical neoplasms
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rodrigues, N.C.P.; Dode, A.C.; de Noronha Andrade, M.K.; O’Dwyer, G.; Monteiro, D.L.M.; Reis, I.N.C.; Rodrigues, R.P.; Frossard, V.C.; Lino, V.T.S. The Effect of Continuous Low-Intensity Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields from Radio Base Stations to Cancer Mortality in Brazil. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 1229. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18031229

AMA Style

Rodrigues NCP, Dode AC, de Noronha Andrade MK, O’Dwyer G, Monteiro DLM, Reis INC, Rodrigues RP, Frossard VC, Lino VTS. The Effect of Continuous Low-Intensity Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields from Radio Base Stations to Cancer Mortality in Brazil. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(3):1229. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18031229

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rodrigues, Nádia Cristina Pinheiro, Adilza Condessa Dode, Mônica Kramer de Noronha Andrade, Gisele O’Dwyer, Denise Leite Maia Monteiro, Inês Nascimento Carvalho Reis, Roberto Pinheiro Rodrigues, Vera Cecília Frossard, and Valéria Teresa Saraiva Lino. 2021. "The Effect of Continuous Low-Intensity Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields from Radio Base Stations to Cancer Mortality in Brazil" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 3: 1229. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18031229

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