Next Article in Journal
Thermal and Current Flow Effects of a Capacitive–Resistive Electric Transfer Application Protocol on Chronic Elbow Tendinopathy. A Cadaveric Study
Next Article in Special Issue
High School Composition and Health Outcomes in Adulthood: A Cohort Study
Previous Article in Journal
Improving Uptake and Sustainability of Sanitation Interventions in Timor-Leste: A Case Study
Open AccessBrief Report

Inequality-Related Health and Social Factors and Their Impact on Well-Being during the COVID-19 Pandemic: Findings from a National Survey in the UK

1
Public Health Policy Evaluation Unit, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London W6 8RP, UK
2
Department of Family Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei 112, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(3), 1014; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18031014
Received: 16 December 2020 / Revised: 15 January 2021 / Accepted: 21 January 2021 / Published: 24 January 2021
Background: Lower socioeconomic groups and disadvantaged populations across the world suffer disproportionately from the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. This study aimed to examine the impact of health- and social-inequality–related factors on well-being in order to further distinguish each of their effects during the pandemic. Methods: A nationally-representative sample of 5077 UK respondents aged 18 years or older was recruited through an online survey panel during the COVID-19 pandemic. Their subjective well-being was measured using the 11-point Cantril Ladder of Life Scale. The impact of inequality-related health and social factors (pre-existing medical conditions, household size and occupation), as well as COVID-19–related risk factors (symptoms, confirmed infections, and social distancing behaviours) on well-being were analysed using multiple linear regression models. The associations between the COVID-19–related risk factors and well-being according to the respondents’ household size and occupation were modelled in order to test the differences by their socioeconomic profile. Results: We identified inverted V-shaped associations between household size and subjective well-being during the COVID-19 pandemic. Compared to single-person households, respondents from households of two to four persons showed better well-being (β = 0.57; CI (0.44, 0.72)), whereas living in crowded households of five persons or more was associated with decreased well-being (β = −0.48; CI (−0.71, −0.25)). Furthermore, lower-skilled occupations (elementary occupations: β = −0.31; CI (−0.58, −0.03); logistics and transport services: β = −0.37; CI (−0.74, −0.01)) and chronic medical conditions (cardiometabolic or respiratory diseases: β = −0.25; CI (−0.41, −0.1); and mental health conditions: β = −1.12; CI (−1.28, −0.96)) were factors associated with reduced well-being during the pandemic. Interactions between a positive COVID-19 diagnosis, symptoms, and crowded households were identified (β = −0.95; CI (−1.76, −0.14) and β = −4.74; CI (−9.87, −1.61), respectively). Conclusions: In a national sample, the levels of general subjective well-being during the COVID-19 pandemic and lockdowns were disproportionately distributed across different groups within society. Preventive policies should explicitly focus on reaching lower socioeconomic groups; more emphasis should be placed on the coordination of multisectoral support in order to tackle existing health and social inequalities. View Full-Text
Keywords: COVID-19; health inequalities; social determinants; pandemic; population health; well-being COVID-19; health inequalities; social determinants; pandemic; population health; well-being
MDPI and ACS Style

Chen, D.T.-H.; Wang, Y.-J. Inequality-Related Health and Social Factors and Their Impact on Well-Being during the COVID-19 Pandemic: Findings from a National Survey in the UK. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 1014. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18031014

AMA Style

Chen DT-H, Wang Y-J. Inequality-Related Health and Social Factors and Their Impact on Well-Being during the COVID-19 Pandemic: Findings from a National Survey in the UK. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(3):1014. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18031014

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chen, Daniel T.-H.; Wang, Yi-Jen. 2021. "Inequality-Related Health and Social Factors and Their Impact on Well-Being during the COVID-19 Pandemic: Findings from a National Survey in the UK" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 18, no. 3: 1014. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18031014

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop