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Review

Conceptual Model of Emergency Department Utilization among Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Patients: A Critical Review

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Department of Family Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Michigan, 1018 Fuller St., Ann Arbor, MI 48104, USA
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Department of Health Education and Behavior, University of Florida, Florida Gym Room 5, P.O. Box 118210, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA
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Department of Health Services Research, Management, and Policy, University of Florida, P.O. Box 100185, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA
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Independent Researcher, Gainesville, FL 32601, USA
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Department of Epidemiology, University of Florida, P.O. Box 100231, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA
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School of Human Development and Organizational Studies in Education, University of Florida, P.O. Box 117047, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(24), 12901; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182412901
Received: 31 October 2021 / Revised: 26 November 2021 / Accepted: 28 November 2021 / Published: 7 December 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chronic Disease, Disability, and Community Care)
Deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) populations are understudied in health services research and underserved in healthcare systems. Existing data indicate that adult DHH patients are more likely to use the emergency department (ED) for less emergent conditions than non-DHH patients. However, the lack of research focused on this population’s ED utilization impedes the development of health promotion and quality improvement interventions to improve patient health and quality outcomes. The purpose of this study was to develop a conceptual model describing patient and non-patient (e.g., community, health system, provider) factors influencing ED utilization and ED care processes among DHH people. We conducted a critical review and used Andersen’s Behavioral Model of Health Services Use and the PRECEDE-PROCEED Model to classify factors based on their theoretical and/or empirically described role. The resulting Conceptual Model of Emergency Department Utilization Among Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Patients provides predisposing, enabling, and reinforcing factors influencing DHH patient ED care seeking and ED care processes. The model highlights the abundance of DHH patient and non-DHH patient enabling factors. This model may be used in quality improvement interventions, health services research, or in organizational planning and policymaking to improve health outcomes for DHH patients. View Full-Text
Keywords: deaf; hard of hearing; hearing loss; critical review; emergency department; health behavior; conceptual model deaf; hard of hearing; hearing loss; critical review; emergency department; health behavior; conceptual model
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MDPI and ACS Style

James, T.G.; Varnes, J.R.; Sullivan, M.K.; Cheong, J.; Pearson, T.A.; Yurasek, A.M.; Miller, M.D.; McKee, M.M. Conceptual Model of Emergency Department Utilization among Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Patients: A Critical Review. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 12901. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182412901

AMA Style

James TG, Varnes JR, Sullivan MK, Cheong J, Pearson TA, Yurasek AM, Miller MD, McKee MM. Conceptual Model of Emergency Department Utilization among Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Patients: A Critical Review. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(24):12901. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182412901

Chicago/Turabian Style

James, Tyler G., Julia R. Varnes, Meagan K. Sullivan, JeeWon Cheong, Thomas A. Pearson, Ali M. Yurasek, M. D. Miller, and Michael M. McKee. 2021. "Conceptual Model of Emergency Department Utilization among Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Patients: A Critical Review" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 24: 12901. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182412901

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