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Article

Inequality in the Face of Death: The Income Gradient in Mortality of the Spanish Pre-Recession Working-Age Population

Department of Economic Analysis, University of Zaragoza, 50005 Zaragoza, Spain
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Academic Editor: Myriam Khlat
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(23), 12379; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182312379
Received: 31 August 2021 / Revised: 21 November 2021 / Accepted: 23 November 2021 / Published: 25 November 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Health Econometrics)
The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and mortality over a three-year period for working-age Spaniards (2007–2009), paying particular attention to the effect of income level. The analysis is relatively new in Spain, and the studies are limited. Neither income nor wealth are included in existing Spanish mortality studies. The main reason for this limitation is the nature of the data sets used, mainly Census Records. We overcome this problem by using data on 693,994 individuals taken from a Social Security sampling and used to estimate the probabilities of death for each income decile and the mortality rate ratios in three different models: (1) using only income, controlled by age and sex, (2) adding socio-economic and geographical variables, and (3) adding level of education. However, the data used here also have some limitations. They do not include government employees, the military or the Department of Justice personnel, whose exclusion we believe causes an under-representation of highly educated people in our sample. The results confirm that there is a non-linear relationship between mortality and income. This non-linear relationship implies that income redistribution resulting from progressive taxation systems could lead to higher reductions in mortality for low-income groups than the reductions induced in the mortality of the high-income population, thus reducing overall mortality. View Full-Text
Keywords: income; determinants of health; mortality rate income; determinants of health; mortality rate
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MDPI and ACS Style

García-Castrillo, P.; González-Álvarez, M.A. Inequality in the Face of Death: The Income Gradient in Mortality of the Spanish Pre-Recession Working-Age Population. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 12379. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182312379

AMA Style

García-Castrillo P, González-Álvarez MA. Inequality in the Face of Death: The Income Gradient in Mortality of the Spanish Pre-Recession Working-Age Population. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(23):12379. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182312379

Chicago/Turabian Style

García-Castrillo, Pedro, and María A. González-Álvarez 2021. "Inequality in the Face of Death: The Income Gradient in Mortality of the Spanish Pre-Recession Working-Age Population" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 23: 12379. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182312379

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