The Israeli Experience with the “Green Pass” Policy Highlights Issues to Be Considered by Policymakers in Other Countries
2. Materials and Methods
The Israeli Green Pass Policy—Design and Implementation
4.1. The Green Pass Policy Can Be an Effective Public Health Tool to Relax COVID-19 Restrictions in a Situation of Great Uncertainty
4.2. What Policymakers Should Be Aware of When Considering a “Green Pass Policy”
- Electronic medical records can facilitate the implementation of a GPP, but attention should be paid to data privacy and protection.
- To reduce equity concerns, all age groups should be eligible for the vaccine (contingent on approval for children) and have access to the vaccine. Alternatively, authorities can grant temporary certificates if testing is available.
- Essential activities should be excluded from the GPP requirement. Nevertheless, it is impossible to avoid gaps between GPP regulations and implementation. While some places might demand a GPP even when not legally necessary, others will not implement it despite being legally obligated to do so.
- GPP regulations should have standardised epidemiological criteria, a gradual implementation process, flexibility in their application, and adaptability according to risk.
- GPP limitations should balance epidemiological risks with the economic viability of their implementation; otherwise, businesses may not recover if partial activity does not cover operating costs.
- Consulting with stakeholders can reduce resistance or opposition to a GPP.
- Enforcement is key for the effectiveness of a GPP and should be designed in a way that does not violate civil rights.
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Phase||Date||Limitations on Gatherings||High-Risk Places||Low-Risk Places||Notes|
|First implementation of the GPP||21.02.21||Maximum people: 10 indoors|
|Remained closed||75% capacity allowed, 300 indoors, 500 outdoors||Occupancy restrictions of 1 person per 7 sq. metres|
|Opening high-risk events and relaxing restrictions on low-risk events||07.03.21||No change||50% capacity, maximum 300 people.|
For restaurants capacity 75%, max. 100 people indoors, 100 outdoors
|75% capacity allowed, 500 indoors, 750 outdoors||Babies up to 1 year old exempt from GPP|
|Further easing of restrictions||19.03.21||No change||50% capacity, maximum 300 people indoors, 500 outdoors||Indoors: 75% capacity for places with up to 5000 seats, and 30% capacity otherwise.Outdoors: 75% capacity for places with up to 10,000 places, 30% otherwise||Temporary GPP granted for negatively tested with rapid tests (privately funded).|
Swimming pools and events in open areas exempt from GPP
|Further easing of restrictions||08.04.21||Maximum people: 20 indoors|
|Maximum 300 people indoors, 750 outdoors||Up to 10,000 people at outdoor and 4000 indoor events||Introduction of government-funded PCR tests for children to obtain a temporary GPP|
|Further easing of restrictions||06.05.21||Maximum people: 50 indoors|
|End of all occupancy restrictions||End of all occupancy restrictions||Exemptions for sporting facilities and events from the GPP|
|Abolition of GPP regulations and all occupancy and gathering restrictions||01.06.21|
|Reintroduction of the “Green Pass Policy” for all individuals 1||21.07.21||No limitations||Green Pass required for indoor social events with 100+ people||No limitations||Heavy penalties imposed on owners of businesses that do not require the Green Pass|
|Tighter regulations for the “Green Pass Policy” 2||29.07.21||No limitations||Expansion of the GPP requirements to places with 100+ people such as restaurants, gyms, sporting facilities, hotels||No limitations||Children aged 12+ are exempt from the Green Pass (except social events with 100+ people). Negative tests can be used as “temporary Green Pass”: PCR for 72 h, rapid test for 24 h.|
|Expansion of the requirement of the Green Pass to all public places, except essential places, including children of all ages 3||08.08.21||No limitations||Green Pass required for all public places regardless of the number of people.||Synagogues with more than 50 people must comply with the GPP||Ending of government-funded tests; tests to be covered by the recipient, except for children up to 12 years old|
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Waitzberg, R.; Triki, N.; Alroy-Preis, S.; Lotan, T.; Shiran, L.; Ash, N. The Israeli Experience with the “Green Pass” Policy Highlights Issues to Be Considered by Policymakers in Other Countries. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 11212. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182111212
Waitzberg R, Triki N, Alroy-Preis S, Lotan T, Shiran L, Ash N. The Israeli Experience with the “Green Pass” Policy Highlights Issues to Be Considered by Policymakers in Other Countries. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(21):11212. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182111212Chicago/Turabian Style
Waitzberg, Ruth, Noa Triki, Sharon Alroy-Preis, Tomer Lotan, Liat Shiran, and Nachman Ash. 2021. "The Israeli Experience with the “Green Pass” Policy Highlights Issues to Be Considered by Policymakers in Other Countries" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 21: 11212. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182111212