Next Article in Journal
Evidence and Therapeutic Perspectives in the Relationship between the Oral Microbiome and Alzheimer’s Disease: A Systematic Review
Previous Article in Journal
Prostate Cancer Survival by Risk and Other Prognostic Factors in Mallorca, Spain
Article

Routes of Administration of Illicit Drugs among Young Swiss Men: Their Prevalence and Associated Socio-Demographic Characteristics and Adverse Outcomes

1
Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Hospital of Psychiatry Zurich, University of Zurich, 8032 Zurich, Switzerland
2
Alcohol Treatment Centre, Lausanne University Hospital CHUV, 1011 Lausanne, Switzerland
3
Addiction Switzerland, 1001 Lausanne, Switzerland
4
Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON M5S 2S1, Canada
5
Department of Health and Social Sciences, University of the West of England, Bristol BS16 1QY, UK
6
La Source, School of Nursing Sciences, HES-SO University of Applied Sciences and Arts of Western Switzerland, 1004 Lausanne, Switzerland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(21), 11158; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182111158
Received: 6 September 2021 / Revised: 20 October 2021 / Accepted: 21 October 2021 / Published: 24 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Mental Health)
The prevalence of different routes of administration (ROAs) of illicit drugs other than cannabis was examined in young Swiss men, in addition to the association between socio-demographics and adverse outcomes and particular ROAs. Our sample consisted of 754 men (mean age = 25.4 ± 1.2 years) who participated in the Cohort Study on Substance Use Risk Factors and reported using any of 18 illicit drugs over the last 12 months. Prevalence estimates were calculated for oral use, nasal use, smoking, injecting, and other ROAs. Associations between ROAs and socio-demographics and adverse outcomes (i.e., alcohol use disorder (AUD), suicidal ideations, and health and social consequences) were calculated for using single versus multiple ROAs. The most prevalent ROA was oral use (71.8%), followed by nasal use (59.2%), smoking (22.1%), injecting (1.1%), and other ROAs (1.7%). Subjects’ education, financial autonomy, and civil status were associated with specific ROAs. Smoking was associated with suicidal ideations and adverse health consequences and multiple ROAs with AUD, suicidal ideations, and health and social consequences. The most problematic pattern of drug use among young adults appears to be using multiple ROAs, followed by smoking. Strategies to prevent and reduce the use of such practices are needed to avoid adverse outcomes at this young age. View Full-Text
Keywords: routes of drug administration; oral use; nasal use; smoking; injecting; alcohol use disorder; suicidal ideations; social consequences; health consequences routes of drug administration; oral use; nasal use; smoking; injecting; alcohol use disorder; suicidal ideations; social consequences; health consequences
MDPI and ACS Style

Estévez-Lamorte, N.; Foster, S.; Gmel, G.; Mohler-Kuo, M. Routes of Administration of Illicit Drugs among Young Swiss Men: Their Prevalence and Associated Socio-Demographic Characteristics and Adverse Outcomes. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 11158. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182111158

AMA Style

Estévez-Lamorte N, Foster S, Gmel G, Mohler-Kuo M. Routes of Administration of Illicit Drugs among Young Swiss Men: Their Prevalence and Associated Socio-Demographic Characteristics and Adverse Outcomes. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(21):11158. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182111158

Chicago/Turabian Style

Estévez-Lamorte, Natalia, Simon Foster, Gerhard Gmel, and Meichun Mohler-Kuo. 2021. "Routes of Administration of Illicit Drugs among Young Swiss Men: Their Prevalence and Associated Socio-Demographic Characteristics and Adverse Outcomes" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 21: 11158. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182111158

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop