Next Article in Journal
System Redesign: The Value of a Primary Care Liaison Model to Address Unmet Social Needs among Older Primary Care Patients
Previous Article in Journal
Prevalence of Intimate Partner Violence, Substance Use Disorders and Depression among Incarcerated Women in Lima, Perú
 
 
Article

Family Function and Child Adjustment Difficulties in the COVID-19 Pandemic: An International Study

1
Moray House School of Education and Sport, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH8 8AQ, UK
2
Department of Psychology, Uppsala University, 751 42 Uppsala, Sweden
3
Centre for Psychiatry Research, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, 117 63 Stockholm, Sweden
4
Department of Brain and Behavioural Sciences, University of Pavia, 27100 Pavia, Italy
5
Centre for Family Research, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3RQ, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
i-FAM COVID-19 Consortium.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(21), 11136; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182111136
Received: 20 September 2021 / Revised: 15 October 2021 / Accepted: 20 October 2021 / Published: 23 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Topic Burden of COVID-19 in Different Countries)
To estimate specific proximal and distal effects of COVID-19-related restrictions on families on children’s adjustment problems, we conducted a six-site international study. In total, 2516 parents from Australia, China, Italy, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States of America living with a young child (Mage = 5.77, SD = 1.10, range = 3 to 8 years, 47.9% female) completed an online survey between April and July 2020. The survey included the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and family risk factors (parent distress, parent–child conflict, couple conflict, and household chaos) as well as a scale to index COVID-19-related family disruption. Our analyses also included public data on the stringency of national restrictions. Across the six sites, parental responses indicated elevated levels of hyperactivity, conduct, and emotion problems in children from families characterized by heightened levels of parent distress, parent–child conflict, and household chaos. In contrast, increased peer problems were more strongly related to COVID-19-related social disruption and stringency measures. Mediation models demonstrated that associations between COVID-19 social disruption and child difficulties could be explained by parental distress. Taken together, these results suggest that although the experience of the pandemic differed across countries, associations between COVID-19-related family experiences and child adjustment difficulties were similar in their nature and magnitude across six different contexts. Programs to support family resilience could help buffer the impact of the pandemic for two generations. View Full-Text
Keywords: COVID-19; child adjustment; family; risk; distress; international COVID-19; child adjustment; family; risk; distress; international
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Foley, S.; Badinlou, F.; Brocki, K.C.; Frick, M.A.; Ronchi, L.; Hughes, C. Family Function and Child Adjustment Difficulties in the COVID-19 Pandemic: An International Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 11136. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182111136

AMA Style

Foley S, Badinlou F, Brocki KC, Frick MA, Ronchi L, Hughes C. Family Function and Child Adjustment Difficulties in the COVID-19 Pandemic: An International Study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(21):11136. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182111136

Chicago/Turabian Style

Foley, Sarah, Farzaneh Badinlou, Karin C. Brocki, Matilda A. Frick, Luca Ronchi, and Claire Hughes. 2021. "Family Function and Child Adjustment Difficulties in the COVID-19 Pandemic: An International Study" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 21: 11136. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182111136

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop