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Article

Prevalence of Intimate Partner Violence, Substance Use Disorders and Depression among Incarcerated Women in Lima, Perú

1
Department of Population Health Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Central Florida (UCF), Orlando, FL 32827, USA
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School of Public Health, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
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Centro de Investigaciones Tecnológicas, Biomédicas y Medioambientales, Callao 07006, Peru
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Department of Health Promotion Sciences, Mel & Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85724, USA
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Public Health Research Institute of India, Mysore 560020, Karnataka, India
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Asociación Civil Impacta Salud y Educación, Lima 15603, Peru
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International Degrees Department, Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas, Lima 15023, Peru
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Office of Research and Technology Transfer, Universidad Privada San Juan Bautista, Chorrillos 15067, Peru
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Berkeley Research Development Office, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94704, USA
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Division of Infectious Diseases, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
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Tulane School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Erin C. Wilson
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(21), 11134; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182111134
Received: 17 August 2021 / Revised: 14 October 2021 / Accepted: 15 October 2021 / Published: 23 October 2021
Background: Globally, there is evidence supporting the co-occurrence of intimate partner violence (IPV), substance use disorders (SUD) and mental health disorders among women in prisons, however, there is limited research investigating these domains in the Andean region where rates of female incarceration have increased. The study objective was to explore the prevalence of IPV, SUD and depression among incarcerated women in a Peruvian prison and explore associations among these variables and related correlates. Methods: 249 incarcerated women responded to a questionnaire about IPV, substance use, depression, and sexual behavior, and were screened for HIV/sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Univariate analysis and logistic regression were used to estimate relative risk and the influence of substance use and depression on IPV rates. Results: Twelve months prior to incarceration, of the women with sexual partners pre-incarceration (n = 212), 69.3% experienced threats of violence, 61.4% experienced ≥1 acts of physical violence, and 28.3% reported ≥1 act of sexual aggression. Pre-incarceration, 68.1% of drug-using women had a SUD, and 61.7% of those who consumed alcohol reported hazardous/harmful drinking. There were 20 (8.0%) HIV/STD cases; and 67.5% of the women reported depressive symptoms. Compared to women with no experiences of physical violence, a greater proportion of women who experienced least l violent act had depressive symptoms and engaged in sex work pre-incarceration. Depression was associated with physical violence (adjusted relative risk = 1.35, 95% confidence interval: 1.14–1.58). Recommendations: The findings provide evidence of a syndemic of IPV, substance abuse and depression among incarcerated women in a Peruvian prison. To help guide policy makers, further research is needed to determine if this is indicative of trends for other at-risk women in the region, and viable options to treat these women during incarceration to prevent recidivism and other long-term negative sequalae. View Full-Text
Keywords: women; incarceration; violence; substance-use; depression; Perú women; incarceration; violence; substance-use; depression; Perú
MDPI and ACS Style

Cyrus, E.; Sanchez, J.; Madhivanan, P.; Lama, J.R.; Bazo, A.C.; Valencia, J.; Leon, S.R.; Villaran, M.; Vagenas, P.; Sciaudone, M.; Vu, D.; Coudray, M.S.; Atice, F.L. Prevalence of Intimate Partner Violence, Substance Use Disorders and Depression among Incarcerated Women in Lima, Perú. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 11134. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182111134

AMA Style

Cyrus E, Sanchez J, Madhivanan P, Lama JR, Bazo AC, Valencia J, Leon SR, Villaran M, Vagenas P, Sciaudone M, Vu D, Coudray MS, Atice FL. Prevalence of Intimate Partner Violence, Substance Use Disorders and Depression among Incarcerated Women in Lima, Perú. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(21):11134. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182111134

Chicago/Turabian Style

Cyrus, Elena, Jorge Sanchez, Purnima Madhivanan, Javier R. Lama, Andrea C. Bazo, Javier Valencia, Segundo R. Leon, Manuel Villaran, Panagiotis Vagenas, Michael Sciaudone, David Vu, Makella S. Coudray, and Frederick L. Atice. 2021. "Prevalence of Intimate Partner Violence, Substance Use Disorders and Depression among Incarcerated Women in Lima, Perú" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 21: 11134. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182111134

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