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The Weight Problem: Overview of the Most Common Concepts for Body Mass and Fat Distribution and Critical Consideration of Their Usefulness for Risk Assessment and Practice

1
Department of Medical Informatics at the University Medical Centre Göttingen, Georg August University, Von-Siebold-Str. 3, 37075 Göttingen, Germany
2
General Practitioner Centre Arnold & Liffers, Albstr. 6, 89081 Jungingen, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(21), 11070; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182111070
Received: 1 September 2021 / Revised: 13 October 2021 / Accepted: 18 October 2021 / Published: 21 October 2021
The prevalence of obesity already reached epidemic proportions many years ago and more people may die from this pandemic than from COVID-19. However, the figures depend on which measure of fat mass is used. The determination of the associated health risk also depends on the applied measure. Therefore, we will examine the most common measures for their significance, their contribution to risk assessment and their applicability. The following categories are reported: indices of increased accumulation of body fat; weight indices and mortality; weight indices and risk of disease; normal weight obesity and normal weight abdominal obesity; metabolically healthy obesity; the obesity paradox. It appears that BMI is still the most common measure for determining weight categories, followed by measures of abdominal fat distribution. Newer measures, unlike BMI, take fat distribution into account but often lack validated cut-off values or have limited applicability. Given the high prevalence of obesity and the associated risk of disease and mortality, it is important for a targeted approach to identify risk groups and determine individual risk. Therefore, in addition to BMI, a measure of fat distribution should always be used to ensure that less obvious but risky manifestations such as normal weight obesity are identified. View Full-Text
Keywords: anthropometry; weight indices; applicability; overweight and obesity; pandemic; health risk anthropometry; weight indices; applicability; overweight and obesity; pandemic; health risk
MDPI and ACS Style

Kesztyüs, D.; Lampl, J.; Kesztyüs, T. The Weight Problem: Overview of the Most Common Concepts for Body Mass and Fat Distribution and Critical Consideration of Their Usefulness for Risk Assessment and Practice. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 11070. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182111070

AMA Style

Kesztyüs D, Lampl J, Kesztyüs T. The Weight Problem: Overview of the Most Common Concepts for Body Mass and Fat Distribution and Critical Consideration of Their Usefulness for Risk Assessment and Practice. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(21):11070. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182111070

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kesztyüs, Dorothea, Josefine Lampl, and Tibor Kesztyüs. 2021. "The Weight Problem: Overview of the Most Common Concepts for Body Mass and Fat Distribution and Critical Consideration of Their Usefulness for Risk Assessment and Practice" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 21: 11070. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182111070

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