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Article

Perceptions, Vulnerability and Adaptation Strategies for Mitigating Climate Change Effects among Small Livestock Herders in Punjab, Pakistan

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College of Economics and Management, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China
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Institute of Agricultural and Resource Economics, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Faisalabad 38000, Pakistan
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Research Center for Green Development of Agriculture, Digital Countryside Research Institute, College of Economics and Management, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510640, China
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Department of Agricultural Economics, Fayoum University, Fayoum 63514, Egypt
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Centre of Excellence for Olive Research and Training (CEFORT), Barani Agricultural Research Institute, Chakwal 48800, Pakistan
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Institute of Business Management Sciences, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Faisalabad 38000, Pakistan
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Department of Economics, Government College University, Faisalabad 38000, Pakistan
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Agriculture Research Institute, District Kharan, Balochistan 94100, Pakistan
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Department of Sociology, Government College University, Faisalabad 38000, Pakistan
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(20), 10771; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182010771
Received: 30 August 2021 / Revised: 19 September 2021 / Accepted: 29 September 2021 / Published: 14 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Changes and Infectious Diseases Risks)
Pakistan is an agrarian nation that is among the most vulnerable countries to climatic variations. Around 20% of its GDP is produced by agriculture, and livestock-related production contributes more than half of this value. However, few empirical studies have been conducted to determine the vulnerability and knowledge of livestock herders, and particularly the smaller herders. Comprehending individual perceptions of and vulnerabilities to climate change (CC) will enable effective formulation of CC mitigation strategies. This study intended to explore individual perceptions of and vulnerabilities to CC based on a primary dataset of 405 small livestock herders from three agro-ecological zones of Punjab. The results showed that livestock herders’ perceptions about temperature and rainfall variations/patterns coincide with the meteorological information of the study locations. The vulnerability indicators show that Dera Ghazi Khan district is more vulnerable than the other two zones because of high exposure and sensitivity to CC, and lower adaptive capacity. However, all zones experience regular livelihood risks due to livestock diseases and deaths resulting from extreme climatic conditions, lower economic status, and constrained institutional and human resource capabilities, thus leading to increased vulnerability. The results indicate that low-cost local approaches are needed, such as provision of improved veterinary services, increased availability of basic equipment, small-scale infrastructure projects, and reinforcement of informal social safety nets. These measures would support cost-effective and sustainable decisions to enable subsistence livestock herders to adopt climate smart practices. View Full-Text
Keywords: perception; vulnerability; livestock herders perception; vulnerability; livestock herders
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MDPI and ACS Style

Faisal, M.; Abbas, A.; Cai, Y.; Ali, A.; Shahzad, M.A.; Akhtar, S.; Haseeb Raza, M.; Ajmal, M.A.; Xia, C.; Sattar, S.A.; Batool, Z. Perceptions, Vulnerability and Adaptation Strategies for Mitigating Climate Change Effects among Small Livestock Herders in Punjab, Pakistan. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 10771. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182010771

AMA Style

Faisal M, Abbas A, Cai Y, Ali A, Shahzad MA, Akhtar S, Haseeb Raza M, Ajmal MA, Xia C, Sattar SA, Batool Z. Perceptions, Vulnerability and Adaptation Strategies for Mitigating Climate Change Effects among Small Livestock Herders in Punjab, Pakistan. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(20):10771. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182010771

Chicago/Turabian Style

Faisal, Muhammad, Azhar Abbas, Yi Cai, Abdelrahman Ali, Muhammad A. Shahzad, Shoaib Akhtar, Muhammad Haseeb Raza, Muhammad A. Ajmal, Chunping Xia, Syed A. Sattar, and Zahira Batool. 2021. "Perceptions, Vulnerability and Adaptation Strategies for Mitigating Climate Change Effects among Small Livestock Herders in Punjab, Pakistan" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 20: 10771. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182010771

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