Next Article in Journal
Analysis of Policies to Protect the Health of Urban Refugees and Asylum Seekers in Thailand: A Qualitative Study and Delphi Survey
Next Article in Special Issue
“Do Elite Sport First, Get Your Period Back Later.” Are Barriers to Communication Hindering Female Athletes?
Previous Article in Journal
Teaching and Practicing Cognitive-Behavioral and Mindfulness Skills in a Web-Based Platform among Older Adults through the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial
Previous Article in Special Issue
Influence of Menstrual Cycle Estradiol-β-17 Fluctuations on Energy Substrate Utilization-Oxidation during Aerobic, Endurance Exercise
 
 
Article

The Effect of the Menstrual Cycle and Oral Contraceptive Cycle on Muscle Performance and Perceptual Measures

1
Faculty of Medicine, Health and Human Sciences, Macquarie University, North Ryde, NSW 2109, Australia
2
School of Environmental and Life Sciences, The University of Newcastle, Ourimbah, NSW 2258, Australia
3
School of Biomedical Sciences and Pharmacy, The University of Newcastle, Ourimbah, NSW 2258, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(20), 10565; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182010565
Received: 7 September 2021 / Revised: 5 October 2021 / Accepted: 6 October 2021 / Published: 9 October 2021
Most reproductive-aged women are exposed to fluctuating female steroid hormones due to the menstrual cycle or oral contraceptive use. This study investigated the potential effect of the menstrual cycle and combined monophasic oral contraceptive cycle on various aspects of muscle performance. Thirty active females (12 with a natural menstrual cycle, 10 taking a high-androgenicity oral contraceptive and 8 taking a low-androgenicity oral contraceptive), aged 18 to 30 years, were tested three times throughout one menstrual or oral contraceptive cycle. Counter-movement jumps, bilateral hop jumps, handgrip strength, isometric knee extensor strength and isokinetic knee flexion and extension were assessed. Perceptual ratings of fatigue, muscle soreness, pain and mood were recorded. Most variables showed no significant changes over the menstrual or oral contraceptive cycle. However, for the menstrual cycle group, isokinetic knee flexion at 240° s−1, and time of flight in bilateral hopping and counter movement jumps showed better results during the mid-luteal phase compared with the late follicular phase. For the high-androgenicity oral contraceptive group, isokinetic knee flexion at 240° s−1 was significantly higher in the late hormone phase compared with the early hormone phase. For the low-androgenicity oral contraceptive group, time of flight for the counter-movement jumps was lower in the late hormone phase compared with the early hormone phase. The findings indicate that faster and explosive aspects of muscle performance may be influenced by endogenous and exogenous female hormones. View Full-Text
Keywords: estrogen; progesterone; menstrual cycle; monophasic oral contraceptives; androgenicity; muscle strength; muscle power; muscle soreness estrogen; progesterone; menstrual cycle; monophasic oral contraceptives; androgenicity; muscle strength; muscle power; muscle soreness
MDPI and ACS Style

Thompson, B.M.; Drover, K.B.; Stellmaker, R.J.; Sculley, D.V.; Janse de Jonge, X.A.K. The Effect of the Menstrual Cycle and Oral Contraceptive Cycle on Muscle Performance and Perceptual Measures. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 10565. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182010565

AMA Style

Thompson BM, Drover KB, Stellmaker RJ, Sculley DV, Janse de Jonge XAK. The Effect of the Menstrual Cycle and Oral Contraceptive Cycle on Muscle Performance and Perceptual Measures. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(20):10565. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182010565

Chicago/Turabian Style

Thompson, Belinda M., Kaitlyn B. Drover, Rhiannon J. Stellmaker, Dean V. Sculley, and Xanne A. K. Janse de Jonge. 2021. "The Effect of the Menstrual Cycle and Oral Contraceptive Cycle on Muscle Performance and Perceptual Measures" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 20: 10565. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182010565

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop