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Article

The Association between Social Determinants of Health and Self-Reported Diabetic Retinopathy: An Exploratory Analysis

1
Department of Translational Medicine, Herbert Wertheim College of Medicine, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199, USA
2
Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, 00100 Helsinki, Finland
3
Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, College of Medicine, Riga Stradins University, LV-1007 Riga, Latvia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Shared first authorship/equal contributions.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(2), 792; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18020792
Received: 25 November 2020 / Revised: 19 December 2020 / Accepted: 14 January 2021 / Published: 18 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exploring Clinical Outcomes in Diabetes Patients)
One-third of Americans with diabetes will develop diabetic retinopathy (DR), the leading cause of blindness in working-age Americans. Social determinants of health (SDOHs) are conditions in a person’s environment that may impact health. The objective of this study was to determine whether there is an association between SDOHs and DR in patients with type II diabetes. This cross-section study used data from the 2018 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). This study included people with self-reported diabetes in the US in 2018 (n = 60,703). Exposure variables included homeownership, marital status, income, health care coverage, completed level of education, and urban vs. rural environment. The outcome variable was DR. Logistic regression analysis were applied to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Alaskan Native/Native American (OR 2.11; 95% CI: 1.14–3.90), out of work (OR 2.82; 95% CI: 1.62–4.92), unable to work (OR 2.14; 95% CI: 1.57–2.91), did not graduate high school (OR 1.91; 95% CI: 1.30–2.79), only graduated high school (OR 1.43; 95% CI 1.08–1.97), or only attended college or technical school without graduating (OR 1.42; 95% CI: 1.09–1.86) were SDOHs associated with DR in patients with diabetes. Health care providers should identify these possible SDOHs affecting their diabetic patients. View Full-Text
Keywords: diabetes; diabetic retinopathy; social determinants of health; built environment; economic stability; education; community; race; ethnicity; health care diabetes; diabetic retinopathy; social determinants of health; built environment; economic stability; education; community; race; ethnicity; health care
MDPI and ACS Style

Silverberg, E.L.; Sterling, T.W.; Williams, T.H.; Castro, G.; Rodriguez de la Vega, P.; Barengo, N.C. The Association between Social Determinants of Health and Self-Reported Diabetic Retinopathy: An Exploratory Analysis. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 792. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18020792

AMA Style

Silverberg EL, Sterling TW, Williams TH, Castro G, Rodriguez de la Vega P, Barengo NC. The Association between Social Determinants of Health and Self-Reported Diabetic Retinopathy: An Exploratory Analysis. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(2):792. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18020792

Chicago/Turabian Style

Silverberg, Emily L., Trevor W. Sterling, Tyler H. Williams, Grettel Castro, Pura Rodriguez de la Vega, and Noël C. Barengo. 2021. "The Association between Social Determinants of Health and Self-Reported Diabetic Retinopathy: An Exploratory Analysis" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 2: 792. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18020792

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