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Article

Drinking and Night-Time Driving May Increase the Risk of Severe Health Outcomes: A 5-Year Retrospective Study of Traffic Injuries among International Travelers at a University Hospital Emergency Center in Thailand

1
Department of Preventive Medicine and Family Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Burapha University, Chonburi 20131, Thailand
2
Faculty of Medicine and Public Health, HRH Princess Chulabhorn College of Medical Science, Chulabhorn Royal Academy, Bangkok 10210, Thailand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Ediriweera Desapriya and Kazuko Okamura
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(18), 9823; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18189823
Received: 13 August 2021 / Revised: 10 September 2021 / Accepted: 15 September 2021 / Published: 17 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Driving Behaviors and Road Safety)
Road traffic injury (RTI) is a leading cause of death in developing countries. This burden affects not only locals, but also international travelers. Data on international travelers with RTIs in Thailand, especially from a medical perspective, are limited. This study aimed to analyze the factors associated with severe health outcomes following RTIs among international travelers at a university hospital emergency center in Thailand from January 2015 to December 2019. The retrieved data consisted of demographics, risks, preventive factors, and health outcomes. The severity of outcome was classified as fatality, hospitalization, or non-severe. A multinomial logistic regression model was used to identify the possible determinants of severity of health outcome among international travelers with RTI. A total of 720 travelers with RTIs (69% males; 82.5% were Southeast Asian) were included, with a mean age of 28.5 years. Of these, 144 (20%) had severe health outcomes: 64 (9%) fatalities and 80 (11%) hospitalizations. The level of severity of outcome was not associated with travelers’ demographics, but was associated with conventional risk factors, i.e., motorcycle use, alcohol/drug use, night-time driving, and less use of seatbelt/helmet. In a multinomial logistic regression analysis, alcohol drinking (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 2.53, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.41–4.55) and night-time driving (AOR 2.54, 95% CI 1.36–4.75) were associated with hospitalization. Patients who had a history of tetanus vaccination were less likely to die (AOR 0.37, 95% CI 0.17–0.81). In conclusion, one-fifth of RTIs resulted in severe health outcomes, and 9% were fatal. Road safety campaigns in Thailand should target travelers of all nationalities. Interventions that enhance travelers’ safety practices and proper preparation for road accidents should be explored further. View Full-Text
Keywords: traffic accident; road traffic injury; severe health outcomes; multinomial logistic regression analysis; international travelers; Thailand traffic accident; road traffic injury; severe health outcomes; multinomial logistic regression analysis; international travelers; Thailand
MDPI and ACS Style

Sapsirisavat, V.; Mahikul, W. Drinking and Night-Time Driving May Increase the Risk of Severe Health Outcomes: A 5-Year Retrospective Study of Traffic Injuries among International Travelers at a University Hospital Emergency Center in Thailand. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 9823. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18189823

AMA Style

Sapsirisavat V, Mahikul W. Drinking and Night-Time Driving May Increase the Risk of Severe Health Outcomes: A 5-Year Retrospective Study of Traffic Injuries among International Travelers at a University Hospital Emergency Center in Thailand. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(18):9823. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18189823

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sapsirisavat, Vorapot, and Wiriya Mahikul. 2021. "Drinking and Night-Time Driving May Increase the Risk of Severe Health Outcomes: A 5-Year Retrospective Study of Traffic Injuries among International Travelers at a University Hospital Emergency Center in Thailand" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 18: 9823. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18189823

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