The Pandemic beyond the Pandemic: A Scoping Review on the Social Relationships between COVID-19 and Antimicrobial Resistance
- People and publics: portraying prescription practices, knowledge about antibiotics, behavioural practices of consumption and access to antibiotics, its impact on vulnerable groups, the social networks and relationships (including user-prescriber relationship), and the role of media on the prescribing and consumption of antibiotics during the pandemic.
- Systems and environments: framing the dynamics and interactions between AMR and the healthcare, pharmaceutical and food systems. It also includes the economic impact and the role of geography and movement on AMR.
- Institutions and policies: exploring the AMR policy-making from the local (hospital stewardship) to the national and the global level.
- Transformations: integrating the mitigation strategies advised and developed to tackle AMR during pandemic times, the social sciences’ role, and the resulting interventions. These transformations also cover the collaboration between social scientists and non-social scientists.
- What evidence is available in peer-reviewed research that addresses the social dimensions of the relationship between AMR and COVID-19?
- What actions are suggested and generated to deal with these social dimensions?
- What is the role of the social sciences as a transformation agent during the COVID-19 pandemic?
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Search Strategy
2.2. Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria
- The article addresses both topics (AMR and COVID-19) throughout all its content;
- The article is published in a peer-review journal, including commentaries, review articles, editorials, and viewpoints;
- The content of the article includes a social sciences perspective.
2.3. Study Selection
3.1. People and Publics
3.1.1. Antibiotic Prescription Behaviour, Knowledge and Access
3.1.2. Vulnerable Populations
3.1.3. Social Relationships and Networks
3.1.4. Media and Misinformation
3.2. Systems and Environments
3.2.1. Healthcare System
3.2.2. Pharmaceutical System
3.3. Institutions and Policies
3.3.1. Local Policies (Hospital Stewardship Programmes)
3.3.2. National and Global Policies
3.4.1. Social Engagement and Sensitisation
3.4.2. Misinformation Control
3.4.3. Health Systems Strengthening
3.4.4. Infection Prevention and Control
3.4.5. Environmental Protection
3.4.6. Antimicrobial Stewardship
3.4.7. AMR and Infectious Disease Governance
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
|Author||Social Engagement and Sensitisation (Awareness, Behaviour Change)||Misinformation Control||Health Systems Strengthening||Infection Prevention and Control Measures||Environmental Protection||AMR Surveillance and Antimicrobial Stewardship Programmes||AMR and Infectious Diseases Governance During COVID-19 Pandemic|
|Rawson, Ming, et al., 2020 ||Evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on antimicrobial use, antimicrobial resistance and access to effective antimicrobial treatments.|
Keep and promote routine surveillance and AMS principles on AMR during COVID-19 times.
Strengthen and prioritise antimicrobial stewardship programmes during pandemic times.
|Review national policies that do not neglect essential public health programmes in TB and immunisation delivery.|
|Usman, Farooq and Hanna, 2020 ||Educate the public about the unwanted effects of antimicrobial/antibacterial products during the pandemic.||AMS should continue to be applied and promoted during COVID-19 times.||Development of an antimicrobial policy specific for COVID-19, with coordinated strategies at the individual, healthcare and policy levels.|
|Strathdee, Davies and Marcelin, 2020 ||Leverage infection control principles from COVID-19 experience to control AMR.||Prioritise antimicrobial stewardship programmes during the pandemic.|
|Khor et al., 2020 ||Patient education on the appropriate use of antimicrobials and the lack of evidence that antibiotics can be used as a treatment for viral infections, including COVID-19.||Adherence to guidelines recommendations to prevent over- and inappropriate prescribing of antimicrobials during the pandemic.|
|Iwu et al., 2020 ||Integrate antimicrobial stewardship into the pandemic response will help to minimise the emergence of AMR during the pandemic.|
Local guidelines should incorporate the WHO guidance on the use of antimicrobials in the treatment of COVID-19.
|Getahun et al., 2020 ||Targeted training to increase clinical competence among health workers treating COVID-19 patients.|
Ensure the continuity of essential health services and regular supply of antimicrobials, including retroviral and tuberculosis drugs and vaccines.
|Prioritise biocidal agents without or with a low selection pressure for AMR.|
|Hsu, 2020 ||Collect data on how healthcare responses to the pandemic may be affecting AMR.|
|Chibabhai et al., 2020 ||Development of COVID-19 management protocols by AMS teams|
Continue AMS activities in non-COVID-19 sections of healthcare facilities.
|Arshad et al., 2020 ||Development of digital platforms to correct antimicrobial misinformation showing the ineffectiveness of antimicrobials as a treatment for COVID-19 infection.|
|Wilson et al., 2020 ||Prepare and strengthen health systems to the rising burden of AMR after pandemic by strength health systems through investments in capacity building, adequate training for healthcare personnel, adequate supply of antimicrobials and PPE.|
|Miranda et al., 2020 ||Increase societal sensitisation towards infectious diseases and good sanitary practices during the pandemic to diminish the potential impact on rates and transmission of AMR.|
|Nieuwlaat et al., 2020 ||The behavioural changes implemented to deal with the COVID-19 pandemic would also be beneficial in dealing with AMR, as both face similar paths.|
|Yam, 2020 ||A globally coordinated establishment of a framework of governance, surveillance and reporting of AMR to deal with AMR during and after COVID-19.|
|Monnet and Harbarth, 2020 ||Compliance with IPC measures is essential for controlling the spread of COVID-19 infections and AMR bacteria, as well.|
|Heydargoy, 2020 ||Expand virtual consultations systems with reduced cost to decrease antibiotic use in self-medication practices in people who cannot leave home because of the pandemic.|
|Zhu et al., 2021 ||Monitoring of consultations, antibiotics prescribing and AMR should continue during and beyond the COVID-19 pandemic to determine the long-term impact on prescribing behaviour among clinicians.|
|Ashiru-Oredope et al., 2021 ||Increased awareness of antimicrobial guidelines and improvements on infection prevention and control.||Technology as a facilitator for AMS activities.|
Better use of technology (virtual platforms and remote working).
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|Framework Level||Framework Sublevel||Results|
|People and Publics||Antibiotic prescription behaviour, knowledge and access|
|Social relationships and networks|
|Media and misinformation|
|Systems and Environments||Healthcare system|
|Institutions and Policies||Local, National and Global policies|
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Toro-Alzate, L.; Hofstraat, K.; de Vries, D.H. The Pandemic beyond the Pandemic: A Scoping Review on the Social Relationships between COVID-19 and Antimicrobial Resistance. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 8766. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18168766
Toro-Alzate L, Hofstraat K, de Vries DH. The Pandemic beyond the Pandemic: A Scoping Review on the Social Relationships between COVID-19 and Antimicrobial Resistance. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(16):8766. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18168766Chicago/Turabian Style
Toro-Alzate, Luisa, Karlijn Hofstraat, and Daniel H. de Vries. 2021. "The Pandemic beyond the Pandemic: A Scoping Review on the Social Relationships between COVID-19 and Antimicrobial Resistance" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 16: 8766. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18168766