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Article

Fear in a Handful of Dust: The Epidemiological, Environmental, and Economic Drivers of Death by PM2.5 Pollution

1
College of Law, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
2
Ministry of Economy and Sustainable Development, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
3
Faculty of Economics & Business, University of Zagreb, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
4
Faculty of Teacher Education, University of Zagreb, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Aurea Grané and Irene Albarrán
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(16), 8688; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18168688
Received: 1 July 2021 / Revised: 3 August 2021 / Accepted: 14 August 2021 / Published: 17 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Measuring Health and Wellbeing)
This study evaluates numerous epidemiological, environmental, and economic factors affecting morbidity and mortality from PM2.5 exposure in the 27 member states of the European Union. This form of air pollution inflicts considerable social and economic damage in addition to loss of life and well-being. This study creates and deploys a comprehensive data pipeline. The first step consists of conventional linear models and supervised machine learning alternatives. Those regression methods do more than predict health outcomes in the EU-27 and relate those predictions to independent variables. Linear regression and its machine learning equivalents also inform unsupervised machine learning methods such as clustering and manifold learning. Lower-dimension manifolds of this dataset’s feature space reveal the relationship among EU-27 countries and their success (or failure) in managing PM2.5 morbidity and mortality. Principal component analysis informs further interpretation of variables along economic and health-based lines. A nonlinear environmental Kuznets curve may describe the fuller relationship between economic activity and premature death from PM2.5 exposure. The European Union should bridge the historical, cultural, and economic gaps that impair these countries’ collective response to PM2.5 pollution. View Full-Text
Keywords: air pollution; particulate matter; PM2.5; public health; environmental Kuznets curve; machine learning; supervised learning; unsupervised learning; clustering; manifold learning; dimensionality reduction; principal component analysis; European Union air pollution; particulate matter; PM2.5; public health; environmental Kuznets curve; machine learning; supervised learning; unsupervised learning; clustering; manifold learning; dimensionality reduction; principal component analysis; European Union
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MDPI and ACS Style

Chen, J.M.; Zovko, M.; Šimurina, N.; Zovko, V. Fear in a Handful of Dust: The Epidemiological, Environmental, and Economic Drivers of Death by PM2.5 Pollution. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 8688. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18168688

AMA Style

Chen JM, Zovko M, Šimurina N, Zovko V. Fear in a Handful of Dust: The Epidemiological, Environmental, and Economic Drivers of Death by PM2.5 Pollution. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(16):8688. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18168688

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chen, James M., Mira Zovko, Nika Šimurina, and Vatroslav Zovko. 2021. "Fear in a Handful of Dust: The Epidemiological, Environmental, and Economic Drivers of Death by PM2.5 Pollution" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 16: 8688. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18168688

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