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Article

The Oxygen Transport Triad in High-Altitude Pulmonary Edema: A Perspective from the High Andes

High Altitude Pulmonary and Pathology Institute (HAPPI-IPPA), Av. Copacabana Prolongacion #55, La Paz 2826, Bolivia
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Academic Editors: Akylbek Sydykov and Djuro Kosanovic
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(14), 7619; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18147619
Received: 16 June 2021 / Revised: 13 July 2021 / Accepted: 13 July 2021 / Published: 17 July 2021
Acute high-altitude illnesses are of great concern for physicians and people traveling to high altitude. Our recent article “Acute Mountain Sickness, High-Altitude Pulmonary Edema and High-Altitude Cerebral Edema, a View from the High Andes” was questioned by some sea-level high-altitude experts. As a result of this, we answer some observations and further explain our opinion on these diseases. High-Altitude Pulmonary Edema (HAPE) can be better understood through the Oxygen Transport Triad, which involves the pneumo-dynamic pump (ventilation), the hemo-dynamic pump (heart and circulation), and hemoglobin. The two pumps are the first physiologic response upon initial exposure to hypobaric hypoxia. Hemoglobin is the balancing energy-saving time-evolving equilibrating factor. The acid-base balance must be adequately interpreted using the high-altitude Van Slyke correction factors. Pulse-oximetry measurements during breath-holding at high altitude allow for the evaluation of high altitude diseases. The Tolerance to Hypoxia Formula shows that, paradoxically, the higher the altitude, the more tolerance to hypoxia. In order to survive, all organisms adapt physiologically and optimally to the high-altitude environment, and there cannot be any “loss of adaptation”. A favorable evolution in HAPE and pulmonary hypertension can result from the oxygen treatment along with other measures. View Full-Text
Keywords: high altitude; chronic hypobaric hypoxia; physiologic adaptation; travel to high-altitude cities; high-altitude physiology; pulmonary hypertension; cardiorespiratory test; acute sea-level sickness; high-altitude gas expansion; lung disease; hemoglobin; tolerance to hypoxia; oxygen content high altitude; chronic hypobaric hypoxia; physiologic adaptation; travel to high-altitude cities; high-altitude physiology; pulmonary hypertension; cardiorespiratory test; acute sea-level sickness; high-altitude gas expansion; lung disease; hemoglobin; tolerance to hypoxia; oxygen content
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zubieta-Calleja, G.; Zubieta-DeUrioste, N. The Oxygen Transport Triad in High-Altitude Pulmonary Edema: A Perspective from the High Andes. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 7619. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18147619

AMA Style

Zubieta-Calleja G, Zubieta-DeUrioste N. The Oxygen Transport Triad in High-Altitude Pulmonary Edema: A Perspective from the High Andes. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(14):7619. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18147619

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zubieta-Calleja, Gustavo, and Natalia Zubieta-DeUrioste. 2021. "The Oxygen Transport Triad in High-Altitude Pulmonary Edema: A Perspective from the High Andes" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 14: 7619. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18147619

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