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Systematic Review on Healthcare and Societal Costs of Tinnitus

ViLabs, Limassol 3030, Cyprus
Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri IRCCS, 20156 Milan, Italy
Laboratory of Experimental Audiology, Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden
National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Nottingham Biomedical Research Centre, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, Ropewalk House, Nottingham NG1 5DU, UK
Division of Clinical Neuroscience, Hearing Sciences, School of Medicine, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2UH, UK
Faculty of Psychology and Educational Science, Health Phycology, KU Leuven University, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium
Centre of Knowledge and Expertise in Rehabilitation and Audiology, Tinnitus Center of Expertise, Adelante, 6432 CC Hoensbroek, The Netherlands
Faculty of Psychology and Neurosciences, Experimental Health Psychology, Maastricht University, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands
First Department of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Hippocrateion General Hospital, 11527 Athens, Greece
Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Regensburg, 93053 Regensburg, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Shared first authors.
Academic Editors: Martine Hamann and Rodney P. Jones
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(13), 6881;
Received: 4 May 2021 / Revised: 18 June 2021 / Accepted: 21 June 2021 / Published: 26 June 2021
Tinnitus disability is a heterogeneous and complex condition, affecting more than 10% and compromising the quality of life of 2% of the population, with multiple contributors, often unknown, and enigmatic pathophysiology. The available treatment options are unsatisfactory, as they can, at best, reduce tinnitus severity, but not eliminate its perception. Given the spread of tinnitus and the lack of a standardized treatment, it is crucial to understand the economic burden of this condition. We conducted a systematic review of the literature on PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR) and Google Scholar, in order to identify all the articles published on the economic burden of tinnitus before 1 April 2021 (PROSPERO—International prospective register of systematic reviews—No: CRD42020180438). Out of 273 articles identified through our search strategy, only five articles from studies conducted in the United States of America (USA), the Netherlands and the United Kingdom (UK) provided data on tinnitus’s economic costs. Three studies provided mean annual estimates per patient ranging between EUR 1544 and EUR 3429 for healthcare costs, between EUR 69 and EUR 115 for patient and family costs and between EUR 2565 and EUR 3702 for indirect costs, including productivity loss. The other two studies reported an annual mean cost of EUR 564 per patient for tinnitus-related clinical visits, and total costs of EUR 1388 and EUR 3725 for patients treated with a sound generator and Neuromonics Tinnitus Treatment, respectively. Our comprehensive review shows a gap in the knowledge about the economic burden of tinnitus on healthcare systems, patients and society. The few available studies show considerable expenses due to healthcare and indirect costs, while out-of-pocket costs appear to be less financially burdensome. Comprehensive health economic evaluations are needed to fill the gaps in current knowledge, using a unified method with reliable and standardized tools. View Full-Text
Keywords: tinnitus; healthcare cost; economic burden; cost analysis; systematic review tinnitus; healthcare cost; economic burden; cost analysis; systematic review
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MDPI and ACS Style

Trochidis, I.; Lugo, A.; Borroni, E.; Cederroth, C.R.; Cima, R.; Kikidis, D.; Langguth, B.; Schlee, W.; Gallus, S. Systematic Review on Healthcare and Societal Costs of Tinnitus. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 6881.

AMA Style

Trochidis I, Lugo A, Borroni E, Cederroth CR, Cima R, Kikidis D, Langguth B, Schlee W, Gallus S. Systematic Review on Healthcare and Societal Costs of Tinnitus. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(13):6881.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Trochidis, Ilias, Alessandra Lugo, Elisa Borroni, Christopher R. Cederroth, Rilana Cima, Dimitris Kikidis, Berthold Langguth, Winfried Schlee, and Silvano Gallus. 2021. "Systematic Review on Healthcare and Societal Costs of Tinnitus" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 13: 6881.

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