(1) Background: The degree of satisfaction with dental treatment varies among patients, and the discrepancy may exist between the patient’s subjective evaluation and the objective assessment. Further, the optimal methods for increasing patient satisfaction with mastication remain unclear. This study aimed to identify factors affecting masticatory satisfaction in patients with removable partial dentures. (2) Methods: A total of 132 participants (71.0 ± 9.0 years) were included. Masticatory satisfaction was assessed on a visual analog scale. An oral health survey was conducted to assess the number of functional teeth, missing tooth classification: Kennedy classification, occlusal support: Eichner classification, and removable partial dentures wearing jaw. Objective masticatory performance was assessed using gummy jelly, while subjective masticatory ability was assessed using food acceptance status and oral health-related quality of life. The associations of these factors with masticatory satisfaction were assessed. (3) Results: Masticatory satisfaction among removable partial denture wearers was not significantly associated with gender, age, denture wearing jaw, Kennedy classification, and occlusal support. The degree of masticatory satisfaction was significantly greater with higher levels of masticatory function: masticatory performance, food acceptance score, and OHIP-14 score. The OHIP-14 score was the only significant explanatory variable for masticatory satisfaction in the multiple regression analysis; the strongest associations were with the “psychological discomfort” and “physical disability” subscales (p
= 0.02 and p
= 0.005, respectively). (4) Conclusions: Masticatory satisfaction among removable partial denture wearers was strongly associated with oral health-related quality of life, in which the ability to eat meals comfortably with removable partial dentures is the most important determinant of masticatory satisfaction.
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