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Article

Repurposing an EMG Biofeedback Device for Gait Rehabilitation: Development, Validity and Reliability

1
Biomechanics and Movement Science Interdisciplinary Program, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716, USA
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School of Education, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716, USA
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Product & Marketing Manager, mTrigger, LLC, Newark, DE 19713, USA
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Dexter Kofa, Mobile App Developer, Philadelphia, PA 19120, USA
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Department of Kinesiology and Applied Physiology, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Giuseppe Messina
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(12), 6460; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18126460
Received: 28 April 2021 / Revised: 9 June 2021 / Accepted: 11 June 2021 / Published: 15 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovation in Physical Activity Assessment)
Gait impairment often limits physical activity and negatively impacts quality of life. EMG-Biofeedback (EMG-BFB), one of the more effective interventions for improving gait impairment, has been limited to laboratory use due to system costs and technical requirements, and has therefore not been tested on a larger scale. In our research, we aimed to develop and validate a cost-effective, commercially available EMG-BFB device for home- and community-based use. We began by repurposing mTrigger® (mTrigger LLC, Newark, DE, USA), a cost-effective, portable EMG-BFB device, for gait application. This included developing features in the cellphone app such as step feedback, success rate, muscle activity calibration, and cloud integration. Next, we tested the validity and reliability of the mTrigger device in healthy adults by comparing it to a laboratory-grade EMG system. While wearing both devices, 32 adults walked overground and on a treadmill at four speeds (0.3, 0.6, 0.9, and 1.2 m/s). Statistical analysis revealed good to excellent test–retest reliability (r > 0.89) and good to excellent agreement in the detection of steps (ICC > 0.85) at all speeds between two systems for treadmill walking. Our results indicated that mTrigger compared favorably to a laboratory-grade EMG system in the ability to assess muscular activity and to provide biofeedback during walking in healthy adults. View Full-Text
Keywords: EMG biofeedback; gait; rehabilitation; measurement EMG biofeedback; gait; rehabilitation; measurement
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MDPI and ACS Style

Koiler, R.; Bakhshipour, E.; Glutting, J.; Lalime, A.; Kofa, D.; Getchell, N. Repurposing an EMG Biofeedback Device for Gait Rehabilitation: Development, Validity and Reliability. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 6460. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18126460

AMA Style

Koiler R, Bakhshipour E, Glutting J, Lalime A, Kofa D, Getchell N. Repurposing an EMG Biofeedback Device for Gait Rehabilitation: Development, Validity and Reliability. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(12):6460. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18126460

Chicago/Turabian Style

Koiler, Reza, Elham Bakhshipour, Joseph Glutting, Amy Lalime, Dexter Kofa, and Nancy Getchell. 2021. "Repurposing an EMG Biofeedback Device for Gait Rehabilitation: Development, Validity and Reliability" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 12: 6460. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18126460

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