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Article

Brominated Flame Retardants in Children’s Room: Concentration, Composition, and Health Risk Assessment

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Faculty of Pharmacy, Pharmacy Practice, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
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Center of Excellence in Environmental Studies, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
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Pharmaceutics Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
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Natural Products and Alternative Medicine Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
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Department of Anatomy, Medical College, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
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Toxicological Center, University of Antwerp, 2610 Wilrijk, Belgium
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ling Tim Wong
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(12), 6421; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18126421
Received: 1 May 2021 / Revised: 9 June 2021 / Accepted: 11 June 2021 / Published: 14 June 2021
Children spend most of their daily time indoors. Many of the items used indoors, such as furniture, electronics, textile, and children toys, are treated with chemicals to provide longevity and fulfil the safety standards. However, many chemicals added to these products are released into the environment during leaching out from the treated products. Many studies have reported brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in indoor environments; however, few have focused on environments specified for young children. In this study, paired air (PM10) and dust samples were collected from the rooms (n = 30) of Saudi children. These samples were analyzed for different congeners of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and three important alternative flame retardants using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE 209) was the most important analyzed BFR in dust and PM10 samples with a median value of 3150 ng/g of dust and 75 pg/m3. This indicates the wider application of BDE 209 has implications for its occurrence, although its use has been regulated for specified uses since 2014. Among alternative BFRs, 2-Ethylhexyl-2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoate (TBB), Bis(2-ethylhexyl)-3,4,5,6-tetrabromophthalate (TBPH), and 1,2-Bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE) were found with a median levels of 10, 15 and 8 ng/g of dust, respectively. However, alternative BFRs were present in <50% of the PM10 samples. The calculated long term and daily exposures via indoor dust and PM10 of Saudi children from their rooms were well below the respective reference dose (RfD) values. Nonetheless, the study highlights BDE 209 at higher levels than previously reported from household dust in Saudi Arabia. The study warrants further extensive research to estimate the different classes of chemical exposure to children from their rooms. View Full-Text
Keywords: brominated flame retardants; indoor dust; PM10; children exposure; Saudi Arabia brominated flame retardants; indoor dust; PM10; children exposure; Saudi Arabia
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bannan, D.; Ali, N.; Alhakamy, N.A.; Alfaleh, M.A.; Alharbi, W.S.; Rashid, M.I.; Rajeh, N.; Malarvannan, G. Brominated Flame Retardants in Children’s Room: Concentration, Composition, and Health Risk Assessment. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 6421. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18126421

AMA Style

Bannan D, Ali N, Alhakamy NA, Alfaleh MA, Alharbi WS, Rashid MI, Rajeh N, Malarvannan G. Brominated Flame Retardants in Children’s Room: Concentration, Composition, and Health Risk Assessment. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(12):6421. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18126421

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bannan, Douha, Nadeem Ali, Nabil A. Alhakamy, Mohamed A. Alfaleh, Waleed S. Alharbi, Muhammad I. Rashid, Nisreen Rajeh, and Govindan Malarvannan. 2021. "Brominated Flame Retardants in Children’s Room: Concentration, Composition, and Health Risk Assessment" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 12: 6421. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18126421

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