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Article

Mental Health of Refugees and Migrants during the COVID-19 Pandemic: The Role of Experienced Discrimination and Daily Stressors

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Department of Social Work and Social Pedagogy, Ghent University, 9000 Gent, Belgium
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Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, 1014 Copenhagen, Denmark
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Department of Health Education, University of Lisbon, 1400 Lisbon, Portugal
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Department of Biomedical, Metabolical and Neurosciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, 41125 Modena, Italy
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Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Ghent University, 9000 Gent, Belgium
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Department of Child Health and Parenting, Uppsala University, 75236 Uppsala, Sweden
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Department of Social Psychology, Universidad de Sevilla, 41018 Seville, Spain
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Institutional Discourse Research Laboratory, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 14122 Athens, Greece
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Department of Psychology, Maynooth University, W23 F2K8 Co. Kildare, Ireland
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DIRE Laboratory, Department of Social Sciences, La Reunion University, 97400 Saint-Denis, France
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School of health and Welfare, Dalarna University, 79188 Falun, Sweden
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Department of Sociology, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33620, USA
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ISCTE-IUL, 1649-026 Lisboa, Portugal
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Department of Psychology, Al Istiqlal University, Jericho P 580, Palestine
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Department of Psychology, Université de Toulouse, 31058 Toulouse, France
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Department of Primary and Community Care, Radboud University, 6500 HB Nijmegen, The Netherlands
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Research Center for Greek Society, Academy of Athens, 15126 Athens, Greece
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Department of School of Education and Social Work, University of Sussex, Sussex BN1 4GE, UK
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(12), 6354; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18126354
Received: 5 May 2021 / Revised: 3 June 2021 / Accepted: 8 June 2021 / Published: 11 June 2021
The COVID-19 pandemic is a defining global health crisis of our time. While the impact of COVID-19, including its mental health impact, is increasingly being documented, there remain important gaps regarding the specific consequences of the pandemic on particular population groups, including refugees and migrants. This study aims to uncover the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the mental health of refugees and migrants worldwide, disentangling the possible role of social and daily stressors, i.e., experiences of discrimination and daily living conditions. Descriptive analysis and structural equation modeling were used to analyze the responses of N = 20,742 refugees and migrants on the self-reporting global ApartTogether survey. Survey findings indicated that the mental health of refugees and migrants during the COVID-19 pandemic was significantly impacted, particularly for certain subgroups, (i.e., insecure housing situation and residence status, older respondents, and females) who reported experiencing higher levels of increased discrimination and increases in daily life stressors. There is a need to recognize the detrimental mental health impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on particular refugee and migrant groups and to develop interventions that target their unique needs. View Full-Text
Keywords: refugees; migrants; mental health; discrimination; COVID-19 refugees; migrants; mental health; discrimination; COVID-19
MDPI and ACS Style

Spiritus-Beerden, E.; Verelst, A.; Devlieger, I.; Langer Primdahl, N.; Botelho Guedes, F.; Chiarenza, A.; De Maesschalck, S.; Durbeej, N.; Garrido, R.; Gaspar de Matos, M.; Ioannidi, E.; Murphy, R.; Oulahal, R.; Osman, F.; Padilla, B.; Paloma, V.; Shehadeh, A.; Sturm, G.; van den Muijsenbergh, M.; Vasilikou, K.; Watters, C.; Willems, S.; Skovdal, M.; Derluyn, I. Mental Health of Refugees and Migrants during the COVID-19 Pandemic: The Role of Experienced Discrimination and Daily Stressors. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 6354. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18126354

AMA Style

Spiritus-Beerden E, Verelst A, Devlieger I, Langer Primdahl N, Botelho Guedes F, Chiarenza A, De Maesschalck S, Durbeej N, Garrido R, Gaspar de Matos M, Ioannidi E, Murphy R, Oulahal R, Osman F, Padilla B, Paloma V, Shehadeh A, Sturm G, van den Muijsenbergh M, Vasilikou K, Watters C, Willems S, Skovdal M, Derluyn I. Mental Health of Refugees and Migrants during the COVID-19 Pandemic: The Role of Experienced Discrimination and Daily Stressors. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(12):6354. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18126354

Chicago/Turabian Style

Spiritus-Beerden, Eva, An Verelst, Ines Devlieger, Nina Langer Primdahl, Fábio Botelho Guedes, Antonio Chiarenza, Stephanie De Maesschalck, Natalie Durbeej, Rocío Garrido, Margarida Gaspar de Matos, Elisabeth Ioannidi, Rebecca Murphy, Rachid Oulahal, Fatumo Osman, Beatriz Padilla, Virginia Paloma, Amer Shehadeh, Gesine Sturm, Maria van den Muijsenbergh, Katerina Vasilikou, Charles Watters, Sara Willems, Morten Skovdal, and Ilse Derluyn. 2021. "Mental Health of Refugees and Migrants during the COVID-19 Pandemic: The Role of Experienced Discrimination and Daily Stressors" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 12: 6354. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18126354

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