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Article

Sleep Duration and Waking Activities in Relation to the National Sleep Foundation’s Recommendations: An Analysis of US Population Sleep Patterns from 2015 to 2017

1
School of Psychology, University of Lincoln, Lincoln LN6 7TS, UK
2
Lincoln Sleep Research (LiSReC), University of Lincoln, Lincoln LN6 7TS, UK
3
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London W2 1PG, UK
4
Centre for Psychiatry, Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, Queen Mary University of London, London EC1M 6BQ, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Alessandro Cicolin
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(11), 6154; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18116154
Received: 3 April 2021 / Revised: 1 June 2021 / Accepted: 2 June 2021 / Published: 7 June 2021
The objective was to investigate the association between time spent on waking activities and nonaligned sleep duration in a representative sample of the US population. We analysed time use data from the American Time Use Survey (ATUS), 2015–2017 (N = 31,621). National Sleep Foundation (NSF) age-specific sleep recommendations were used to define recommended (aligned) sleep duration. The balanced, repeated, replicate variance estimation method was applied to the ATUS data to calculate weighted estimates. Less than half of the US population had a sleep duration that mapped onto the NSF recommendations, and alignment was higher on weekdays (45%) than at weekends (33%). The proportion sleeping longer than the recommended duration was higher than those sleeping shorter on both weekdays and weekends (p < 0.001). Time spent on work, personal care, socialising, travel, TV watching, education, and total screen time was associated with nonalignment to the sleep recommendations. In comparison to the appropriate recommended sleep group, those with a too-short sleep duration spent more time on work, travel, socialising, relaxing, and leisure. By contrast, those who slept too long spent relatively less time on each of these activities. The findings indicate that sleep duration among the US population does not map onto the NSF sleep recommendations, mostly because of a higher proportion of long sleepers compared to short sleepers. More time spent on work, travel, and socialising and relaxing activities is strongly associated with an increased risk of nonalignment to NSF sleep duration recommendations. View Full-Text
Keywords: sleep duration; waking activities; time use; suboptimal sleep; excessive sleep; recommendations sleep duration; waking activities; time use; suboptimal sleep; excessive sleep; recommendations
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mireku, M.O.; Rodriguez, A. Sleep Duration and Waking Activities in Relation to the National Sleep Foundation’s Recommendations: An Analysis of US Population Sleep Patterns from 2015 to 2017. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 6154. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18116154

AMA Style

Mireku MO, Rodriguez A. Sleep Duration and Waking Activities in Relation to the National Sleep Foundation’s Recommendations: An Analysis of US Population Sleep Patterns from 2015 to 2017. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(11):6154. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18116154

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mireku, Michael O., and Alina Rodriguez. 2021. "Sleep Duration and Waking Activities in Relation to the National Sleep Foundation’s Recommendations: An Analysis of US Population Sleep Patterns from 2015 to 2017" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 11: 6154. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18116154

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