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Article

Humidifier Disinfectant Consumption and Humidifier Disinfectant-Associated Lung Injury in South Korea: A Nationwide Population-Based Study

1
Department of Preventive Medicine, Gachon University College of Medicine, Incheon 21999, Korea
2
Artificial Intelligence and Big-Data Convergence Center, Gachon University Gil Medical Center, Incheon 21565, Korea
3
Department of Health Sciences and Technology, GAIHST, Gachon University, Incheon 21999, Korea
4
Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Gachon University Gil Medical Center, Incheon 21565, Korea
5
Department of Occupational Health, Daegu Catholic University, Gyeongbuk 38430, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Jeonggyo Yoon and Minsun Kang contributed equally and should be considered co-first authors.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(11), 6136; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18116136
Received: 26 April 2021 / Revised: 31 May 2021 / Accepted: 1 June 2021 / Published: 6 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occupational & Environmental Health Risk Assessment)
Humidifier disinfectant (HD) is a household biocidal product used in humidifier water tanks to prevent the growth of microorganisms. In 2011, a series of lung injury cases of unknown causes emerged in children and pregnant women who had used HD in Korea. This study investigated changes in the nationwide number of cases of humidifier disinfectant-associated lung injury (HDLI) in concordance with nationwide HD consumption using data covering the entire Korean population. More than 25 kinds of HD products were sold between 1994 and 2011. The number of diagnosed HDLI, assessed by S27.3 (other injuries of lungs) of the Korea National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) data, sharply increased by 2005, subsequently decreased after 2005, and almost disappeared after 2011 in concordance with the annual number of HD sales. The number of self-reported HDLIs, assessed using data from all suspected HDLI cases registered in the Korea Ministry of Environment, changed with the annual number of HD sales, with a delay pattern, potentially induced by the late awareness of lung injury diseases. The present study suggests that changes in the nationwide annual consumption of HD products were consistent with changes in the annual number of HDLI cases in Korea. View Full-Text
Keywords: humidifier disinfectant; humidifier disinfectant sales; NHIS; HDLI; lung injury humidifier disinfectant; humidifier disinfectant sales; NHIS; HDLI; lung injury
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MDPI and ACS Style

Yoon, J.; Kang, M.; Jung, J.; Ju, M.J.; Jeong, S.H.; Yang, W.; Choi, Y.-H. Humidifier Disinfectant Consumption and Humidifier Disinfectant-Associated Lung Injury in South Korea: A Nationwide Population-Based Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 6136. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18116136

AMA Style

Yoon J, Kang M, Jung J, Ju MJ, Jeong SH, Yang W, Choi Y-H. Humidifier Disinfectant Consumption and Humidifier Disinfectant-Associated Lung Injury in South Korea: A Nationwide Population-Based Study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(11):6136. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18116136

Chicago/Turabian Style

Yoon, Jeonggyo, Minsun Kang, Jaehun Jung, Min J. Ju, Sung H. Jeong, Wonho Yang, and Yoon-Hyeong Choi. 2021. "Humidifier Disinfectant Consumption and Humidifier Disinfectant-Associated Lung Injury in South Korea: A Nationwide Population-Based Study" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 11: 6136. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18116136

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