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Article

The Association of Energy Poverty with Health and Wellbeing in Children in a Mediterranean City

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Agència de Salut Pública de Barcelona, 08023 Barcelona, Spain
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Institut d’Investigació Biomèdica Sant Pau (IIB Sant Pau), 08041 Barcelona, Spain
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Department of Experimental and Health Sciences, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, 08005 Barcelona, Spain
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CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), 28029 Madrid, Spain
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Centre for Regional Economic Social Research, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield S1 2LX, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(11), 5961; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18115961
Received: 20 April 2021 / Revised: 27 May 2021 / Accepted: 30 May 2021 / Published: 2 June 2021
Children have been identified as being particularly vulnerable to energy poverty (EP), but little empirical research has addressed the effect of EP on children’s health and wellbeing, especially in southern Europe. In this work we aimed to provide an in-depth description of the distribution of EP by sociodemographic, socioeconomic and housing characteristics, as well as to analyse the association between EP and health and wellbeing in children in Barcelona. We performed a cross-sectional study using data from the Barcelona Health Survey for 2016 (n = 481 children under 15 years). We analysed the association between EP and health outcomes through prevalence differences and prevalence ratios (PR) and their 95% confidence interval (CI), using Poisson regression models with robust variance. In Barcelona, 10.6% of children were living in EP and large inequalities were found by sociodemographic, socioeconomic and housing characteristics. EP was strongly associated with poor health in children (PR (95% CI): 7.70 (2.86, 20.72)). Living in EP was also associated with poor mental health (PR (95% CI): 2.46 (1.21, 4.99)) and with more cases of asthma (PR (95% CI): 4.19 (1.47, 11.90)) and overweight (PR (95% CI): 1.50 (1.05, 2.15)) in children. It is urgent to develop specific measures to avoid such serious and unfair health effects on children. View Full-Text
Keywords: energy poverty; fuel poverty; health; health inequalities; social determinants of health; children; southern Europe; urban energy poverty; fuel poverty; health; health inequalities; social determinants of health; children; southern Europe; urban
MDPI and ACS Style

Oliveras, L.; Borrell, C.; González-Pijuan, I.; Gotsens, M.; López, M.J.; Palència, L.; Artazcoz, L.; Marí-Dell’Olmo, M. The Association of Energy Poverty with Health and Wellbeing in Children in a Mediterranean City. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 5961. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18115961

AMA Style

Oliveras L, Borrell C, González-Pijuan I, Gotsens M, López MJ, Palència L, Artazcoz L, Marí-Dell’Olmo M. The Association of Energy Poverty with Health and Wellbeing in Children in a Mediterranean City. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(11):5961. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18115961

Chicago/Turabian Style

Oliveras, Laura, Carme Borrell, Irene González-Pijuan, Mercè Gotsens, María J. López, Laia Palència, Lucía Artazcoz, and Marc Marí-Dell’Olmo. 2021. "The Association of Energy Poverty with Health and Wellbeing in Children in a Mediterranean City" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 11: 5961. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18115961

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