Next Article in Journal
Effects of Nature-Based Group Art Therapy Programs on Stress, Self-Esteem and Changes in Electroencephalogram (EEG) in Non-Disabled Siblings of Children with Disabilities
Previous Article in Journal
Characteristics and Outcomes of Pediatric COVID-19 Patients in Osaka, Japan
Article

Adverse Health Effects in Women Farmers Indirectly Exposed to Pesticides

1
Department of Nutrition, Food Chemistry and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Sevilla, 41012 Sevilla, Spain
2
Toxicology Unit, Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Institute of Biomedical Research of Salamanca (IBSAL), University of Salamanca (USAL), 37007 Salamanca, Spain
3
Estepa Clinical Management Unit, Andalusian Health Service, C/Médico Antonio Vilches s/n, 41560 Sevilla, Spain
4
Area of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Facultad de Medicina, Avda. Dr. Fedriani, s/n, 41009 Sevilla, Spain
5
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Sevilla, 41012 Sevilla, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
The authors wish to acknowledge that Jose Martin-Reina and Alfredo G. Casanova contributed as co-first authors to this paper.
Academic Editors: Miguel Motas Guzmán and Marta Esteban López
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(11), 5909; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18115909
Received: 24 March 2021 / Revised: 11 May 2021 / Accepted: 27 May 2021 / Published: 31 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Threads in Environmental Toxicology)
Farmers are among the most vulnerable populations because of the exposure to low levels of pesticides. Acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase activities are considered as biomarkers of pesticides poisoning. However, biomarkers of oxidative stress are also playing an important role in toxicity of these contaminants. Further, increased activities of gamma-glutamyltransferase, alanine aminotransferase, urea and creatinine have been linked with hepatic and nephrotoxic cell damage, respectively. The aim of this study was to ascertain if the indirect exposure to pesticides leads to some biochemical parameter changes. Thus, cholinesterase activities, oxidative stress status (lipid and protein oxidation), hepatic function (AST and ALT levels), hormonal function (TSH, T4, FSH, LH and AMH), renal function (serum creatinine and urea), as well as possible subclinical kidney damage (urinary proteins and biomarkers of early kidney damage) were evaluated in farmer women who collect fruits and vegetables comparing with a group of women non-occupational exposed to pesticides but living in the same rural environment. Samples were taken periodically along one year to relate the observed effects to a chronic exposure. Our main results showed for the first time a subclinical kidney damage in a rural setting with indirect chronic exposure to pesticides. View Full-Text
Keywords: cholinesterase; oxidative stress; early kidney damage; pesticides; women farmers cholinesterase; oxidative stress; early kidney damage; pesticides; women farmers
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Martin-Reina, J.; Casanova, A.G.; Dahiri, B.; Fernández, I.; Fernández-Palacín, A.; Bautista, J.; Morales, A.I.; Moreno, I. Adverse Health Effects in Women Farmers Indirectly Exposed to Pesticides. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 5909. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18115909

AMA Style

Martin-Reina J, Casanova AG, Dahiri B, Fernández I, Fernández-Palacín A, Bautista J, Morales AI, Moreno I. Adverse Health Effects in Women Farmers Indirectly Exposed to Pesticides. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(11):5909. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18115909

Chicago/Turabian Style

Martin-Reina, Jose, Alfredo G. Casanova, Bouchra Dahiri, Isaías Fernández, Ana Fernández-Palacín, Juan Bautista, Ana I. Morales, and Isabel Moreno. 2021. "Adverse Health Effects in Women Farmers Indirectly Exposed to Pesticides" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 11: 5909. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18115909

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop