Occupational Safety of Municipal Police Officers: Assessing the Vulnerability and Riskiness of Police Officers’ Work
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Research Design
2.2. Participants and Sampling
2.3. Information Collection
2.4. Data Analysis Strategy
3.1. Statistical Assessment of Municipal Police Officer Activities in the Context of Work Riskiness
3.2. Assessment of Municipal Police Officer Work Riskiness According to the Work and Work Environment Factors
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Insignificant = 1||Minor Incident = 2||Minor Injury = 3||Health Damage = 4||Injury = 5||Multiple Injuries = 6||Serious Injury = 7||Fatal = 8||Multiple Fatalities = 9|
|Rare||Impossible = 1||1||2||3||4||5||6||7||8||9|
|Remote = 2||2||4||6||8||10||12||14||16||18|
|Unlikely = 3||3||6||9||12||15||18||21||24||27|
|Occasional||Possible = 4||4||8||12||16||20||24||28||32||36|
|Unusual = 5||5||10||15||20||25||30||35||40||45|
|Known = 6||6||12||18||24||30||36||42||48||54|
|Frequent||Likely = 7||7||14||21||28||35||42||49||56||63|
|Usual = 8||8||16||24||32||40||48||56||64||72|
|Certain = 9||9||18||27||36||45||54||63||72||81|
|Year||Number of Attacks on Municipal Police Officers||Number of Injured Municipal Police Officers||Probability of Attack on Municipal Police Officers||Probability of Municipal Police Officer Injury|
|Year||Number of Municipal Police Employees||Number of Attacks on Municipal Police Officers||Probability of Attack on Municipal Police Officers|
|Factor of Work||Category||Characteristics of Work|
|A. Noise||1||(a) Works in which the normalized noise exposure level LAEX,8h does not exceed 75 dB for 8 h, or the peak level C of acoustic pressure LCPk does not exceed 130 dB.|
(b) Works in which the normalized noise exposure level in a 40 h week exceeds 75 dB, but does not exceed the upper action value of noise exposure (LAEX,8h, a = 85 dB and LCPk = 137 dB).
|B. Vibrations||-||Not determined.|
|C. Electromagnetic field||-||Not determined.|
|D. Ultraviolet radiation||-||Not determined.|
|E. Infrared radiation||-||Not determined.|
|F. Lasers||-||Not determined.|
|G. Intense pulsed light||-||Not determined.|
|H. Ionizing radiation||-||Not determined.|
|I. Increased air pressure||-||Not determined.|
|J. Chemical factors||-||Not determined.|
|K. Carcinogenic and mutagenic factors||-||Not determined.|
|L. Biological factors||2||Works in which exposure is a group 2 biological factor (may cause human disease and could be hazardous to employees, but is unlikely to spread to the population, and usually effective prophylaxis or treatment is available) or a group 3 biological factor (may cause serious human disease and serious danger to employees; they may pose a risk of spreading in the population, with effective prophylaxis or treatment usually available) if the infections they cause do not normally spread through the air and for which effective prophylaxis and treatment is available.|
|M. Heat load||2||(a) Works performed in the long term at an indoor workplace, where the permissible value of the operating temperature is exceeded due to heat load from technology, but the degree of heat load does not require the limitation of working time by adhering to long-term tolerable working time and short-term tolerable working time.|
(b) Works performed in the long term at an outdoor workplace during the warm period (the warm period is a period with an average daily outdoor air temperature of 13 °C and higher).
|N. Cold load||2||(a) Works performed in the long term at an indoor workplace, where, due to technological reasons, the permissible value of the operating temperature is not reached, but the operating temperature in these areas is not lower than +4 °C.|
(b) Works performed in the long term at an outdoor workplace during the cold period (the cold period is a period when the average daily temperature for two consecutive days falls below 13 °C).
(c) Works associated with the alternation of large temperature differences, especially in refrigerators or freezers, at a change frequency of more than 15 times per shift or at change intervals of less than 30 min.
|O. Physical load||2||(a) Works predominantly dynamic, performed by large muscle groups in which:|
1. The shift net energy expenditure does not exceed the average and permissible values for the age groups of men and women, but exceeds 0.85 times the average and permissible values for the age groups of men and women;
2. The minute net energy expenditure does not exceed the permissible values for the age groups of men and women, but exceeds 0.85 times the permissible values for the age groups of men and women, or;
3. The heart rate does not exceed the values of the average shift heart rate for the age groups of men and women, but exceeds 0.85 times the value of the average shift heart rate for the age groups of men and women.
(b) Works performed by small muscle groups in which:
1. The permissible shift average values for predominantly dynamic work and for work with static components of work for men and women are not exceeded, but 0.7 times the permissible shift average values for predominantly dynamic work and for work with static components of work for men and women are exceeded;
2. The number of movements per shift or per minute depending on the duration of the contraction and the amount of force exerted as a percentage of Fmax of the relevant muscle group is not exceeded, but is exceeded 0.5 times the number of movements per change or per minute depending on the duration of the contraction and the amount of force exerted as a percentage of the Fmax of the relevant muscle group;
3. The permissible values of short-term muscle load due to predominantly dynamic work are not exceeded even in the short term, but are 0.7 times the permissible values of short-term muscle load due to predominantly dynamic work is exceeded, or;
4. The number of movements of the small muscle groups of the hand and fingers does not exceed the permissible values of the exerted force during the whole shift, but exceeds 0.5 times the permissible values of the exerted force during the whole shift.
(c) Works predominantly static, performed by small muscle groups in which the average shift exerted muscular force does not exceed the permissible values, but exceeds 0.7 times the permissible values.
(d) Works associated with the transfer of loads in which the weight of the hand-moved loads does not exceed:
1. Maximum weight during the whole shift, but exceeding 0.5 times the maximum weight during the whole shift;
2. The maximum weight of the load, but exceeding 0.2 times the maximum weight of the load set for men and 0.5 times the maximum weight of the load set for women.
(e) Works performed predominantly in the basic working position in sitting, standing, or changing positions, with regularly occurring, conditionally acceptable working positions or unacceptable working positions during work, but the permissible values are not exceeded.
|P. Mental workload||2||Work in which the mental workload assessed according to the characteristics of work and the work environment reaches an increased intensity according to the method specified in Annex no. 5 of the decree on details of health protection against physical stress at work, mental workload, and sensory stress at work.|
|Biological factors||Likely||Serious injury||Extreme|
|Heat load||Known||Minor injury||Low|
|Cold load||Known||Health damage||Moderate|
|Mental workload||Likely||Minor injury||Medium-low|
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Soltes, V.; Kubas, J.; Velas, A.; Michalík, D. Occupational Safety of Municipal Police Officers: Assessing the Vulnerability and Riskiness of Police Officers’ Work. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 5605. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18115605
Soltes V, Kubas J, Velas A, Michalík D. Occupational Safety of Municipal Police Officers: Assessing the Vulnerability and Riskiness of Police Officers’ Work. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(11):5605. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18115605Chicago/Turabian Style
Soltes, Viktor, Jozef Kubas, Andrej Velas, and David Michalík. 2021. "Occupational Safety of Municipal Police Officers: Assessing the Vulnerability and Riskiness of Police Officers’ Work" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 11: 5605. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18115605