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Impacts of Autonomous Vehicles on Greenhouse Gas Emissions—Positive or Negative?

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Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, College of Engineering and Applied Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia
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Center for Environment & Water, Research Institute, King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia
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Department of Civil Engineering, Bangladesh University of Engineering & Technology, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh
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K.A. CARE Energy Research and Innovation Center (ERIC), King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia
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Department of Electrical Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Farooq Sher
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(11), 5567; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18115567
Received: 9 March 2021 / Revised: 16 April 2021 / Accepted: 29 April 2021 / Published: 23 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Science and Engineering)
The potential effects of autonomous vehicles (AVs) on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are uncertain, although numerous studies have been conducted to evaluate the impact. This paper aims to synthesize and review all the literature regarding the topic in a systematic manner to eliminate the bias and provide an overall insight, while incorporating some statistical analysis to provide an interval estimate of these studies. This paper addressed the effect of the positive and negative impacts reported in the literature in two categories of AVs: partial automation and full automation. The positive impacts represented in AVs’ possibility to reduce GHG emission can be attributed to some factors, including eco-driving, eco traffic signal, platooning, and less hunting for parking. The increase in vehicle mile travel (VMT) due to (i) modal shift to AVs by captive passengers, including elderly and disabled people and (ii) easier travel compared to other modes will contribute to raising the GHG emissions. The result shows that eco-driving and platooning have the most significant contribution to reducing GHG emissions by 35%. On the other side, easier travel and faster travel significantly contribute to the increase of GHG emissions by 41.24%. Study findings reveal that the positive emission changes may not be realized at a lower AV penetration rate, where the maximum emission reduction might take place within 60–80% of AV penetration into the network. View Full-Text
Keywords: autonomous vehicle; GHG; emission; COVID-19; CLD; energy consumption; VMT autonomous vehicle; GHG; emission; COVID-19; CLD; energy consumption; VMT
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MDPI and ACS Style

Massar, M.; Reza, I.; Rahman, S.M.; Abdullah, S.M.H.; Jamal, A.; Al-Ismail, F.S. Impacts of Autonomous Vehicles on Greenhouse Gas Emissions—Positive or Negative? Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 5567. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18115567

AMA Style

Massar M, Reza I, Rahman SM, Abdullah SMH, Jamal A, Al-Ismail FS. Impacts of Autonomous Vehicles on Greenhouse Gas Emissions—Positive or Negative? International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(11):5567. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18115567

Chicago/Turabian Style

Massar, Moneim, Imran Reza, Syed Masiur Rahman, Sheikh Muhammad Habib Abdullah, Arshad Jamal, and Fahad Saleh Al-Ismail. 2021. "Impacts of Autonomous Vehicles on Greenhouse Gas Emissions—Positive or Negative?" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 11: 5567. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18115567

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