CCOUC Ethnic Minority Health Project: A Case Study for Health EDRM Initiatives to Improve Disaster Preparedness in a Rural Chinese Population
1.1. Improving Disaster Preparedness and Resilience in Communities
1.2. The Ethnic Minority Health Project
2. The Ma’an Qiao Village Programme
2.2. Multidisciplinary Approach
3.1. Health Education Topics
3.1.1. Hand Hygiene
3.1.2. Smoking Behaviour
3.1.3. Non-Communicable Disease Management
3.1.4. Waste Management
3.1.5. Disaster Preparedness
3.2. Outcome Evaluation
3.2.1. Immediate Outcome Evaluation
3.2.2. Long-Term Outcome Evaluation
4. The EMHP: Achievements and Scaling-Up
4.1. Project Outcome
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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(Physicians and public health professionals)
Academic and Research
|The Wu Zhi Qiao Charitable Foundation||Architecture/|
|Village Leaders||Local Stakeholders|
|University Student Volunteers||Tertiary Education|
|2010 a (n = 110)||2011 b (n = 171)||2018 c (n = 71)|
|Male to female ratio||1:1.6||1:1.3||1:1.4|
|Age Category (years)|
|<45||Mean = 44.5|
Range = 20 to 73
>40 = 58%
|Junior High School||NA||12.3%||21.1%|
|Senior High School||NA||2.9%||5.6%|
|Mean Household Size||NA||3.9||4.2|
|Income per person (RMB)||NA||4029||18,026|
|Agricultural Sector Occupation||83%||88.8%||94.4%|
|Self-Reported Health Status|
(No. of Respondents)
Health-Related Beliefs and Knowledge
|2010 & 2011 Interventions||2018|
(n = 100)
|Believing in the need of handwashing before meal||88%||99%||97%|
|Believing in the need of handwashing after toilet||90%||93%||93%|
|Knowing the health risks (e.g., diarrhoea) of poor hand hygiene||85%||99%|
(14%↑ p < 0.01)
(12%↓ p < 0.01)
(n = 98)
|Believing that smoking can cause lung cancer||64%||94%||94%|
|Believing that passive smoking is more harmful for children||80%||97%||91%|
|Waste management (n = 125)||Knowing the health risks of misplaced excreta||84%||99%|
(15%↑ p < 0.01)
|Knowing health risks of misplaced kitchen waste||81%||96%|
(15%↑ p < 0.01)
|Believing that it is safe to burn different types of wastes together||67%||47%|
(20%↓ p < 0.01)
|Non-communicable diseases management (n = 125)||Knowledge of hypertension||57%||85%|
(28%↑ p < 0.001)
|Knowing the health risks (hypertension) of high salt intake||71%||95%|
(24%↑ p < 0.001)
(14%↓ p < 0.01)
|Knowing health risks (diabetics) of higher meat intake||41%||79%|
(35%↑ p < 0.001)
(n = 110)
|Believing the importance of disaster preparedness||88%||95%||93%|
|Knowing how to prepare a ‘disaster kit’||45%||65%|
(20%↑ p < 0.05)
|Intention to prepare a ‘disaster kit’||58%||93%|
(35%↑ p < 0.001)
(27%↓ p < 0.01)
|Being confident in dealing with future disasters||89%||95%||85%|
(10%↓ p < 0.05)
|Knowing how to evacuate from floods||94%||98%||98%|
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Hung, K.K.C.; MacDermot, M.K.; Chan, E.Y.Y.; Liu, S.; Huang, Z.; Wong, C.S.; Walline, J.H.; Graham, C.A. CCOUC Ethnic Minority Health Project: A Case Study for Health EDRM Initiatives to Improve Disaster Preparedness in a Rural Chinese Population. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 5322. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18105322
Hung KKC, MacDermot MK, Chan EYY, Liu S, Huang Z, Wong CS, Walline JH, Graham CA. CCOUC Ethnic Minority Health Project: A Case Study for Health EDRM Initiatives to Improve Disaster Preparedness in a Rural Chinese Population. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(10):5322. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18105322Chicago/Turabian Style
Hung, Kevin K. C., Makiko K. MacDermot, Emily Y. Y. Chan, Sida Liu, Zhe Huang, Chi S. Wong, Joseph H. Walline, and Colin A. Graham. 2021. "CCOUC Ethnic Minority Health Project: A Case Study for Health EDRM Initiatives to Improve Disaster Preparedness in a Rural Chinese Population" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 10: 5322. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18105322