Environmental, Economic and Social Impact Assessment: Study of Bridges in China’s Five Major Economic Regions
2.1. Modeling Analysis
2.2. Research Process
3. Results and Discussion
3.5. Deepen the Analysis
3.5.1. Economic Evaluation
3.5.2. Modelling and Discussion
Conflicts of Interest
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|LCIA||Preventive design using 15 different methods of LCA concrete bridge deck.||How to reduce environmental pollution in the maintenance stage: Design and evaluation of 15 preventive measures.||The research content is relatively concentrated, single, and focuses on material replacement.|||
|Use LCIA to evaluate the rationality of the bridge design.||Use wooden bridges and alternative concrete to analyse the LCA impact of a cable-stayed bridge.||Ideal research design for the future. There are currently no large-span wooden bridges in operation. There are assumptions and uncertainties in the maintenance assessment of wooden bridges.|||
|Apply life cycle sustainability assessment to the superstructure of small span bridges.||The study was conducted using 27 bridges, and it was determined that a bridge composed of steel and concrete was the best indicator.||The LCA study of ordinary highway bridges, the conclusion is whether it is suitable for long-span special bridges.|||
|LCA was used to assess the environmental impact of the entire 60-year life span of the provincial highway.||The research structure has a complete range of tunnels, bridges, roadbeds, culverts, etc.||The road selection is in a remote area, and the research data are not representative.|||
|Several cases (schools, hospitals, commercial and residential buildings) were quantitatively studied using LCA.||There are many types of structures studied, and an evaluation model is established to quantitatively analyse emissions.||The research conclusions are poorly comparable, and the LCA data are highly uncertain.|||
|LCCA||The article introduces a general framework for evaluating bridge life cycle performance and cost.||The focus is on analysis, prediction, optimization and decision-making under bridge uncertainty.||All the articles in this article are cost theory analysis, and there is no specific bridge case analysis.|||
|Research and develop an LCCA model to evaluate highway infrastructure investment.||Contributed to the systematic and informatised evaluation method of highway infrastructure investment.||Lack of case studies and model application research.|||
|The energy consumption cost of highway pavement is analysed based on LCCA and LCA.||Combining LCA and LCCA to determine the best pavement frame, road expansion projects are more practical.||Case application analysis of pavement concrete sustainability, no structural concrete evaluation.|||
|Quantify the life cycle environmental impact of the structure through environmental costs.||Calculate the environmental costs of materials, energy, transportation and construction equipment for the bridge structure.||The main research is the LCCA influence of the bridge girder structure.|||
|The LCC and LCA analysis of concrete bridges were discussed, and the optimization scheme was proposed.||Economic and environmental impact analysis of reinforced concrete and prestressed concrete bridges.||The bridge structure is simply a simply supported beam bridge across the river.|||
|Use SLCA to clarify the assessment (IA) methods and information covered in the different impact guidelines.||Use representational models to analyse the difference and connection between social influence and social performance.||All are written descriptions, without modeling and data analysis.||[26,27,28]|
|Use SIA to study and practice all issues related to social issues in the entire project life cycle (before conception to after closure).||Analysed the overall social issues in the process of community and project management. Put forward that the biggest social problem management in the project is corruption.||Lack of case application analysis and discussion.||[29,30]|
|SIA is undergoing a revolutionary force and revolutionary force for change.||SIA’s unfamiliarity with social sciences and the concerns of practitioners’ lack of competence.||Lack of case application analysis and discussion.||[31,32]|
|EIA and SIA have technical flaws in analysis and evaluation.||Consider four conceptual elements in a sociological context of complexity and vitality.||Talked about the project SIA’s attention to sensitive factors and the improvement of social responsibility. How to realize the scientific methodology needs to be developed.||[33,34]|
|LCIA\LCCA\SILA||Evaluate the sustainability performance of different concrete and stone walls used in the building.||Multi-criteria decision analysis methods are used to evaluate and prioritise the alternative walls generated by LCA, LCC and S-LCA.||The research is sustainable and comprehensive, the evaluation structure is single, and recycling is not considered.|||
|The study analysed the impact of different mixed timber building structures on three different categories of environment, economy and society.||The comparison of wood and concrete in the building structure has been analysed to improve sustainability.||There are few studies on the three pillars of sustainability. This article has the same research route and different structures.|||
|Three box-type concrete bridges were optimised and sustainable.||Researchers focus on the environmental pillar, while the social pillar has been slow to develop.||It mainly studies the process of sustainability assessment and briefly analyses three precast concrete bridges.|||
|Discussed the framework for assessing the sustainability of bridges, including related technical, economic, environmental and social issues.||The sustainability of four versions of the same bridge was studied, and the local details of the bridge were analysed.||There is a lack of sustainable research on regional and actual operating bridges.|||
|Check Method||Inspection Cycle||Check Parts||Maintenance Cycle|
|Daily check||Working day||Pier foundation, cone slope, side wall of bridge abutment, pavement of bridge deck, drainage system, sidewalk, railing, guardrail, anti-collision wall of bridge deck, lighting system on bridge, expansion device, bridge head laying plate, sign, marking and traffic safety facilities, bridge installation sensors, wiring, cables, anchorage protection inspection, bridge damping device normal operation, support cleaning, rust and corrosion prevention.||Maintenance/year, Overhaul/5 years.|
|Frequency check||One time/every month|
|Regular check||One time/one to three years||Coating layer of exposed concrete.||Maintenance/year, Replacement/5 years.|
|Bridge deck paving, waterproof layer.||Maintenance/year, Overhaul/2 years, Replacement/10 years.|
|Anti-collision guardrail, expansion joint.||Maintenance/year, Overhaul/2-5 years, Replacement/15 years.|
|Cable-stayed bridge cables, slings, tie rods, external damping devices.||Maintenance/year, Overhaul/5 years, Replacement/20 years.|
|Main beams, steel supports, bridge floor drainage pipes, bridge floor lighting facilities.||Maintenance/year, Overhaul/5 years, Replacement/50 years.|
|Basin type rubber bearing.||Maintenance/year, Overhaul/5 years, Replacement/25 years.|
|Damping device between towers and beams.||Maintenance/year, Overhaul/5 years, Replacement/30 years.|
|Main beams, steel supports, bridge floor drainage pipes, bridge floor lighting facilities.||Maintenance/year, Overhaul/5 years, Replacement/50 years.|
|Bridge Name||Regional Location||Basic Situation||Bridge Layout Drawing|
|South Tai Hu Lake Bridge (338 m)||East China, Huzhou in Zhejiang||The main bridge is a double-cable, plane H-shaped, single-tower, concrete, cable-stayed bridge with a span layout of 160 + 190 + 38 m, an urban expressway level, and a design speed of 60 Km/h. The standard section width of the bridge is 40.5 m. The main beam adopts the cross-section form of double main ribs, the building height is 3.055 m, the full width is 40.5 m, and the standard main rib is 2.7 m high and 1.7 m wide. The transverse partition is 0.28 m wide; the bridge deck is 28 cm thick, and each cable plane has 24 pairs of cables.|
|Shenzhen Bay Bridge (345 m)||Central and South China, Shenzhen Bay||The North Channel Bridge adopts the “180 + 90 + 75 m” span layout, the main beam adopts bolt-welded streamlined steel box girder, the beam height is 4.12 m, the standard section length is 12 m, and the overall width is 38.6 m. The total height of the pylon is 139.053 m. The main beam adopts a single-box, four-chamber, thin-walled structure composed of steel box beams with cantilever arms. The top plate thickness of the bridge deck is 18 mm; the bottom plate is 12–20 mm. The bridge has a total of 12 pairs of stay cables with a cable distance of 3 m and a standard cable distance of 12 m.|
|New Bridge of Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden (225 m)||Southwest China, Xishuangbanna Prefecture||The main bridge is an elliptical steel box with a concrete tower column, double cable plane, cable-stayed bridge with a span of 75 + 90 m and a total length of 165 m. The side span is 75 m and the main span is 90 m. The full width of the bridge deck is 14.2 m, the side main beam is 1.8 m high, the bottom width is 1.2 m, the outer top and bottom width is 1.55 m, and the bridge deck is 22 cm thick. The tower column of the cable-stayed bridge adopts a steel box concrete structure with a cross section of 2.5 * 4.0 m and a steel plate thickness of 20 mm.|
|Cable-stayed Bridge of Changjiang West Road, Deyang City (136 m)||Southwest China, Deyang City||Single tower, single cable, plane cable-stayed bridge without back cable, main span 108 m, side span 27.7 m, harp-shaped cable surface, tower and beam consolidation. The standard cable distance on the beam is 8 m, the standard section is 8 m long and weighs about 300 Tons. The main beam adopts a pre-stressed concrete, single-chamber, three-box, flat, thin-walled box beam. The top plate of the box is 24 m wide; the bottom plate is 8.4 m wide, the beam height is 2.5 m, the top plate thickness is 24 cm, the bottom plate thickness is 30 cm, the inclined web plate thickness is 22 cm, and the vertical web plate thickness is 30 cm. A horizontal partition is set every 4 m with a thickness of 28 cm. The approach bridge adopts multi-span continuous beams, all of which are 20 m in span, and the main beam is a 1.4 m high box girder.|
|Hanjiang Highway Bridge in Xiantao City (312 m)||Central China, Xiantao City||The main bridge is a 50 + 82 + 180 m, three-span, single-tower, double-cable plane cable-stayed bridge, the main girder has a full cross-section width of 25.6 m, a basic section length of 8 m, a basic width of side ribs of 1.8 m, and a basic spacing of 8 m between the diaphragms. The roof thickness of the main beam is 0.30 m, and the beam height is 1.9 m.|
|Baishan Bridge in Baishan City (410 m)||Northeast China, Baishan City||The main bridge is a two-span, single-cable, plane cable-stayed bridge with a span of 85 + 85 m. The main beam adopts a single box three-chamber section, the beam height is 2.0 m, the thickness of the top plate is 20 cm, and the thickness of the bottom plate is 40 cm. The section of the main tower adopts an “H” shaped cross-section concrete tower column. Oblique cable harp layout, single-cable deck bridge type, double-width layout with a net width of 15.5 m and a total width of 23.3 m.|
|Number||Cost Incurred||Ratio||Calculation Method||STHB||SZBB||BGNB||CJWB||XTHB||BSCB|
|1||Direct project cost||63,392,933.82||92,208,319.2||15,353,271.88||20,691,737.1||40,938,707.24||32,501,337.6|
|2-1||Project insurance stipulated in the contract||2.50%||1*2(2-1)||1,584,823.346||2,305,207.98||383,831.797||517,293.428||1,023,467.681||812,533.441|
|2-2||Third-party liability insurance stipulated in the contract||0.50%||1*2(2-2)||316,964.6691||461,041.596||76,766.3594||103,458.686||204,693.5362||162,506.688|
|3||Completion Files.||500,000||Constant cost||500,000||500,000||500,000||500,000||500,000||500,000|
|4||Construction environmental protection fees||1,000,000||Constant cost||1,000,000||1,000,000||1,000,000||1,000,000||1,000,000||1,000,000|
|5||Safety production fees||1.50%||1*5||950,894.0074||1,383,124.788||230,299.0782||310,376.057||614,080.6085||487,520.064|
|6||Engineering management software (temporary estimate)||100,000||Constant cost||100,000||100,000||100,000||100,000||100,000||100,000|
|7||Application fee for building information model technology||100,000||Constant cost||100,000||100,000||100,000||100,000||100,000||100,000|
|8||Temporary road construction, maintenance and dismantling fees||101,428.6941||147,533.3107||24,565.23501||33,106.7794||65,501.93158||52,002.1402|
|8-1||Fees for the construction, maintenance and dismantling of the original roads||0.08%||1*8(8-1)||50,714.34706||73,766.65536||12,282.6175||16,553.3897||32,750.96579||26,001.0701|
|8-2||Construction, maintenance and dismantling fees of temporary steel trestle and wharf||0.08%||1*8(8-2)||50,714.34706||73,766.65536||12,282.6175||16,553.3897||32,750.96579||26,001.0701|
|9||Temporarily occupying land and occupying the river||0.25%||1*9||158,482.3346||230,520.798||38,383.1797||51,729.3428||102,346.7681||81,253.3441|
|10||Erection, maintenance and dismantling of temporary power supply facilities||0.08%||1*10||50,714.34706||73,766.65536||12,282.6175||16,553.3897||32,750.96579||26,001.0701|
|11||Provision, maintenance and dismantling of telecommunications facilities||0.08%||1*11||50,714.34706||73,766.65536||12,282.6175||16,553.3897||32,750.96579||26,001.0701|
|12||Water supply and sewage facilities||0.08%||1*12||50,714.34706||73,766.65536||12,282.6175||16,553.3897||32,750.96579||26,001.0701|
|13||The construction fee of the contractor’s project department||0.42%||1*13||266,250.3221||387,274.9406||64,483.74189||86,905.2959||171,942.5704||136,505.618|
|14||Provisional expenses.||5.00%||(1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + 6 + 7 + 8 + 9 + 10 + 11 + 12 + 13)*14||3,431,196.012||4,952,216.129||895,422.4561||1,177,213.34||2,245,949.661||1,800,583.11|
|The total fees of the project||1 +…+ 14||72,055,116.25||103,996,538.7||18,803,871.58||24,721,480.2||47,164,942.89||37,812,245.2|
|Bridge Name||Time Period (Years)||Accident Loss (CNY/Time)||Times of Accidents||Comprehensive Loss Fee (CNY)|
|STHB||2006~2018, 2019~2030, 2031~2105||3866||693\659\460||7,005,192|
|SZBB||2007~2018, 2019~2030, 2031~2106||3259||268\255\179||2,287,818|
|BGNB||2006~2018, 2019~2030, 2031~2105||4831||301\286\201||3,806,828|
|CJWB||2005~2018, 2019~2030, 2031~2104||8706||1070\1019\718||24,437,742|
|XTHB||2003~2018, 2019~2030, 2031~2102||6885||262\250\175||4,730,682|
|Bridge Name||Quantity Analysed According to Chinese Standards||Quantity Analysed According to European Standards|
|Cost of project preparation||0.01%||0.02%||0.01%||0.01%||0.01%||0.01%|
|Survey and design costs||0.07%||0.13%||0.06%||0.05%||0.06%||0.06%|
|Project construction costs||33.63%||63.20%||28.29%||24.39%||30.40%||29.99%|
|Maintenance and operating costs||60.57%||33.56%||63.69%||49.94%||63.78%||60.00%|
|Demolition stage costs||2.45%||1.69%||2.23%||1.50%||2.69%||3.10%|
|Bridge Name||Fatal Accidents||International Migrant Workers||Youth Illiteracy||Corruption||Sanitation Coverage|
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Zhou, Z.; Alcalá, J.; Yepes, V. Environmental, Economic and Social Impact Assessment: Study of Bridges in China’s Five Major Economic Regions. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 122. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18010122
Zhou Z, Alcalá J, Yepes V. Environmental, Economic and Social Impact Assessment: Study of Bridges in China’s Five Major Economic Regions. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(1):122. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18010122Chicago/Turabian Style
Zhou, ZhiWu, Julián Alcalá, and Víctor Yepes. 2021. "Environmental, Economic and Social Impact Assessment: Study of Bridges in China’s Five Major Economic Regions" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 1: 122. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18010122