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Multiple Stressor Effects of Radon and Phthalates in Children: Background Information and Future Research

by 1,2, 3,4, 5,* and 1,6,*
1
Department of Physics, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Ave, Kowloon Tong, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China
2
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Ave, Kowloon Tong, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China
3
Department of Mathematical Sciences, State University of Novi Pazar, Vuka Karadžića 9, RS-36300 Novi Pazar, Serbia
4
Faculty of Science, University of Kragujevac, R. Domanovica 12, 34000 Kragujevac, Serbia
5
James Watt School of Engineering, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, UK
6
State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Ave, Kowloon Tong, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(8), 2898; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17082898
Received: 28 February 2020 / Revised: 16 April 2020 / Accepted: 18 April 2020 / Published: 22 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radon Risk and Metrology)
The present paper reviews available background information for studying multiple stressor effects of radon (222Rn) and phthalates in children and provides insights on future directions. In realistic situations, living organisms are collectively subjected to many environmental stressors, with the resultant effects being referred to as multiple stressor effects. Radon is a naturally occurring radioactive gas that can lead to lung cancers. On the other hand, phthalates are semi-volatile organic compounds widely applied as plasticizers to provide flexibility to plastic in consumer products. Links of phthalates to various health effects have been reported, including allergy and asthma. In the present review, the focus on indoor contaminants was due to their higher concentrations and to the higher indoor occupancy factor, while the focus on the pediatric population was due to their inherent sensitivity and their spending more time close to the floor. Two main future directions in studying multiple stressor effects of radon and phthalates in children were proposed. The first one was on computational modeling and micro-dosimetric studies, and the second one was on biological studies. In particular, dose-response relationship and effect-specific models for combined exposures to radon and phthalates would be necessary. The ideas and methodology behind such proposed research work are also applicable to studies on multiple stressor effects of collective exposures to other significant airborne contaminants, and to population groups other than children. View Full-Text
Keywords: multiple stressor effects; radon; phthalates; children; dosimetric modeling multiple stressor effects; radon; phthalates; children; dosimetric modeling
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kwan, W.S.; Nikezic, D.; Roy, V.A.L.; Yu, K.N. Multiple Stressor Effects of Radon and Phthalates in Children: Background Information and Future Research. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 2898. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17082898

AMA Style

Kwan WS, Nikezic D, Roy VAL, Yu KN. Multiple Stressor Effects of Radon and Phthalates in Children: Background Information and Future Research. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(8):2898. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17082898

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kwan, W. S., D. Nikezic, Vellaisamy A.L. Roy, and K. N. Yu 2020. "Multiple Stressor Effects of Radon and Phthalates in Children: Background Information and Future Research" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 8: 2898. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17082898

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