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Article

Neighborhood Disadvantage and Tobacco Retail Outlet and Vape Shop Outlet Rates

1
Department of Biostatistics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298, USA
2
Massey Cancer Center, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298, USA
3
Department of Health Behavior & Policy, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298, USA
4
Department of Psychiatry, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298, USA
5
Department of Behavioral Health & Developmental Services, Richmond, VA 23298, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(8), 2864; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17082864
Received: 15 February 2020 / Revised: 15 April 2020 / Accepted: 17 April 2020 / Published: 21 April 2020
Neighborhood-level socioeconomic variables, such as the proportion of minority and low-income residents, have been associated with a greater density of tobacco retail outlets (TROs), though less is known about the degree to which these neighborhood indicators are related to vape shop outlet (VSO) density. Many studies of TROs and neighborhood characteristics include only a small set of variables and also fail to take into account the correlation among these variables. Using a carefully curated database of all TROs and VSOs in Virginia (2016–2018), we developed a Bayesian model to estimate a neighborhood disadvantage index and examine its association with rates of outlets across census tracts while also accounting for correlations among variables. Models included 12 census tract variables from the American Community Survey. Results showed that increasing neighborhood disadvantage was associated with a 63% and 64% increase in TRO and VSO risk, respectively. Important variables associated with TRO rates included % renter occupied housing, inverse median gross rent, inverse median monthly housing costs, inverse median monthly housing costs, and % vacant housing units. Important variables associated with VSO rates were % renter occupied housing and % Hispanic population. There were several spatial clusters of significantly elevated risk for TROs and VSOs in western and eastern Virginia. View Full-Text
Keywords: density; geospatial; neighborhood disadvantage; outlet; retail; SES; tobacco vape density; geospatial; neighborhood disadvantage; outlet; retail; SES; tobacco vape
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wheeler, D.C.; Do, E.K.; Hayes, R.B.; Fugate-Laus, K.; Fallavollita, W.L.; Hughes, C.; Fuemmeler, B.F. Neighborhood Disadvantage and Tobacco Retail Outlet and Vape Shop Outlet Rates. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 2864. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17082864

AMA Style

Wheeler DC, Do EK, Hayes RB, Fugate-Laus K, Fallavollita WL, Hughes C, Fuemmeler BF. Neighborhood Disadvantage and Tobacco Retail Outlet and Vape Shop Outlet Rates. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(8):2864. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17082864

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wheeler, David C.; Do, Elizabeth K.; Hayes, Rashelle B.; Fugate-Laus, Kendall; Fallavollita, Westley L.; Hughes, Colleen; Fuemmeler, Bernard F. 2020. "Neighborhood Disadvantage and Tobacco Retail Outlet and Vape Shop Outlet Rates" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 17, no. 8: 2864. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17082864

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