Next Article in Journal
Efficacy of BRS® and Alpron®/Bilpron® Disinfectants for Dental Unit Waterlines: A Six-Year Study
Previous Article in Journal
Health-Related Physical Fitness Benefits in Sedentary Women Employees after an Exercise Intervention with Zumba Fitness®
Open AccessArticle

National Monitoring for Menstrual Health and Hygiene: Is the Type of Menstrual Material Used Indicative of Needs Across 10 Countries?

1
Department of Population, Family and Reproductive Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
2
Ruby Cup by Ruby Life, Nairobi 00100, Kenya
3
The Water Institute, Department of Environmental Health and Engineering, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(8), 2633; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17082633
Received: 20 March 2020 / Revised: 7 April 2020 / Accepted: 9 April 2020 / Published: 12 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Global Health)
Surveys monitoring population health and sanitation are increasingly seeking to monitor menstrual health. In the absence of established indicators, these surveys have most often collected data on the type of menstrual material used. This study investigated whether such data provides a useful indication of women’s menstrual material needs being met. Using data from 12 national or state representative surveys from the Performance Monitoring and Accountability 2020 program, we compared self-reported menstrual material use against respondents’ reported menstrual material needs (including needing clean materials, money, or access to a vendor). The use of menstrual pads did not indicate that menstrual material needs were met for many respondents. Of those exclusively using pads, a pooled 26.4% (95% Confidence Interval 17.1–38.5) of respondents reported that they had unmet material needs. More disadvantaged groups were particularly misrepresented; of rural women exclusively using pads, a pooled 38.5% (95%CI 27.3–51.1) reported unmet material needs, compared to 17.1% (95%CI 12.4–23.0) of urban women. Similar disparities were observed for levels of education and wealth, with a pooled 45.9% (95%CI 29.2–63.6) of women in the lowest wealth quintile reporting unmet material needs. Findings suggest that caution is needed when using menstrual material use as an indicator for menstrual health. View Full-Text
Keywords: menstrual hygiene; menstrual health; outcome assessment; health indicators; women’s health; reproductive health menstrual hygiene; menstrual health; outcome assessment; health indicators; women’s health; reproductive health
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Smith, A.D.; Muli, A.; Schwab, K.J.; Hennegan, J. National Monitoring for Menstrual Health and Hygiene: Is the Type of Menstrual Material Used Indicative of Needs Across 10 Countries? Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 2633.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop