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The Mediation Effect of Self–Report Physical Activity Patterns in the Relationship between Educational Level and Cognitive Impairment in Elderly: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of Chilean Health National Survey 2016–2017

1
PROFITH “PROmoting FITness and Health through Physical Activity” Research Group, Department of Physical Education and Sport, Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Granada, 18071 Granada, Spain
2
IRyS Research Group, School of Physical Education, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Valparaiso 2374631, Chile
3
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology II, School of Pharmacy, Campus de Cartuja s/n, University of Granada, 18071 Granada, Spain
4
Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology “José Mataix”, Biomedical Research Center, Parque Tecnológico Ciencias de la Salud, University of Granada, 18016 Granada, Spain
5
Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria ibs. GRANADA, 18014 Granada, Spain
6
Faculty of Education and Social Sciences, Universidad Andrés Bello, Viña del Mar 2531015, Chile
7
Escuela de Pedagogía en Educación Física, Facultad de Educación, Universidad de las Américas, Santiago 8370035, Chile
8
Escuela de Kinesiología, Facultad de Salud, Universidad Santo Tomás, Viña del Mar 2561694, Chile
9
Department of Cell Biology, School of Sciences, University of Granada, 18071 Granada, Spain
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors equally contributed to this work.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(8), 2619; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17082619
Received: 17 March 2020 / Revised: 3 April 2020 / Accepted: 9 April 2020 / Published: 11 April 2020
The aims of this cross-sectional study were (i) to determine the association of educational level attained with cognitive impairment and (ii) to investigate the mediating effect of different self-report physical activity (PA) patterns in a large sample of older Chileans. A sample of 1571 older adults from the National Chilean Survey (2016–2017) was included. The educational level attained, PA levels, mode of commuting, sedentary time, and leisure-time PA were self-reported through validated questionnaires. Cognitive impairment was determined by Mini-Mental State Examination (modified version). Association between educational level attained and cognitive impairment was examined using logistic regression models. Counterfactual mediation models were used to test the mediating effect of self-reported PA patterns. A lower educational level was consistently associated with higher odds of cognitive impairment (OR range 2.846 to 2.266, all p < 0.001), while leisure-time PA was the only PA pattern that partially mediated this association (proportion mediated 8.0%). In conclusion, leisure-time PA was the solely PA pattern that partially mediated the association between the educational level and cognitive impairment. The rest self-reported PA patterns did not modify this association. View Full-Text
Keywords: cognitive function; aging; sedentary behavior; exercise; mental health cognitive function; aging; sedentary behavior; exercise; mental health
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Solis-Urra, P.; Plaza-Diaz, J.; Álvarez-Mercado, A.I.; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, F.; Cristi-Montero, C.; Zavala-Crichton, J.P.; Olivares-Arancibia, J.; Sanchez-Martinez, J.; Abadía-Molina, F. The Mediation Effect of Self–Report Physical Activity Patterns in the Relationship between Educational Level and Cognitive Impairment in Elderly: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of Chilean Health National Survey 2016–2017. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 2619.

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