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Open AccessArticle

Individual, Family, and Environmental Correlates of Motor Competence in Young Children: Regression Model Analysis of Data Obtained from Two Motor Tests

1
Faculty of Sport and Health Sciences, University of Jyväskylä, 40014 Jyväskylä, Finland
2
Department of Inclusive and Special Needs Education, University of Groningen, 9712 Groningen, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(7), 2548; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072548
Received: 20 March 2020 / Revised: 5 April 2020 / Accepted: 6 April 2020 / Published: 8 April 2020
Physical activity and motor competence (MC) have been considered to be closely related and prevent childhood obesity. The aim of the study was two-fold: to examine MC measured with two different tools in relation to individual, family, and environmental correlates and to investigate gender differences in MC. The Test of Gross Motor Development-Third Edition (TGMD-3) was administered to three- to seven-year-old children (n = 945), while the Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder (KTK) was also used for five- to seven-year-old children (n = 444). The parent questionnaire (n = 936) included questions about individual (e.g., participation in organized sports), family (e.g., parents’ education level), and environmental (e.g., access to sports facilities) correlates. The children’s temperament was assessed using the Colorado Childhood Temperament Inventory (CCTI) questionnaire. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and linear mixed-effects regression models. The regression models explained 57% and 38% of the variance in TGMD-3 and KTK, respectively. Individual correlates, including older age, more frequent participation in sports, and specific temperament traits of activity and attention span-persistence, were the strongest predictors for better MC. Small gender differences were found in both assessment tools, albeit in a different manner. In conclusion, socioecological correlates of MC in young children are multidimensional, and individual correlates appear to be the most important predictors of MC. Importantly, the correlates can differ according to the MC assessment tools. View Full-Text
Keywords: socioecological model; locomotor skills; ball skills; balance skills; coordination; TGMD-3; KTK; temperament socioecological model; locomotor skills; ball skills; balance skills; coordination; TGMD-3; KTK; temperament
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MDPI and ACS Style

Niemistö, D.; Finni, T.; Cantell, M.; Korhonen, E.; Sääkslahti, A. Individual, Family, and Environmental Correlates of Motor Competence in Young Children: Regression Model Analysis of Data Obtained from Two Motor Tests. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 2548. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072548

AMA Style

Niemistö D, Finni T, Cantell M, Korhonen E, Sääkslahti A. Individual, Family, and Environmental Correlates of Motor Competence in Young Children: Regression Model Analysis of Data Obtained from Two Motor Tests. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(7):2548. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072548

Chicago/Turabian Style

Niemistö, Donna; Finni, Taija; Cantell, Marja; Korhonen, Elisa; Sääkslahti, Arja. 2020. "Individual, Family, and Environmental Correlates of Motor Competence in Young Children: Regression Model Analysis of Data Obtained from Two Motor Tests" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 17, no. 7: 2548. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072548

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