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Open AccessArticle

Entrepreneurial, Economic, and Social Well-Being Outcomes from an RCT of a Youth Entrepreneurship Education Intervention among Native American Adolescents

1
Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Center for American Indian Health, 415 N. Washington St., Baltimore, MD 21231, USA
2
Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Center for American Indian Health, 308 Kuper St., Whiteriver, AZ 85941, USA
3
Department of Applied Health Science, Center for Sexual Health Promotion, Indiana University School of Public Health, 1025 E. 7th St., Bloomington, IN 47405, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(7), 2383; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072383
Received: 17 January 2020 / Revised: 21 March 2020 / Accepted: 28 March 2020 / Published: 31 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers: Health Economics)
Background: Entrepreneurship education has demonstrated positive impacts in low-resource contexts. However, there is limited evidence of such programs evaluated among Native American (NA) youth in a rural reservation. Methods: A 2:1 randomized controlled trial evaluated the impact of the Arrowhead Business Group (ABG) entrepreneurship education program on entrepreneurship knowledge, economic empowerment, and social well-being among 394 NA youth. An intent to treat analysis using mixed effects regression models examined within and between study group differences from baseline to 24 months. An interaction term measured change in the intervention relative to change in the control. ABG participants were purposively sampled to conduct focus groups and in-depth interviews. Results: Significant intervention vs. control group improvements were sustained at 12 months for entrepreneurship knowledge and economic confidence/security. Significant within-group improvements were sustained for ABG participants at 24 months for connectedness to parents, school, and awareness of connectedness. Qualitative data endorses positive impacts on social well-being among ABG participants. Conclusion: Observed effects on entrepreneurship knowledge, economic empowerment, and connectedness, supplemented by the experiences and changes as described by the youth themselves, demonstrates how a strength-based youth entrepreneurship intervention focused on developing assets and resources may be an innovative approach to dually address health and economic disparities endured in Native American communities. View Full-Text
Keywords: Native American; adolescent; entrepreneurship education; randomized controlled trial; economic empowerment; qualitative Native American; adolescent; entrepreneurship education; randomized controlled trial; economic empowerment; qualitative
MDPI and ACS Style

Tingey, L.; Larzelere, F.; Goklish, N.; Rosenstock, S.; Jennings Mayo-Wilson, L.; Pablo, E.; Goklish, W.; Grass, R.; Sprengeler, F.; Parker, S.; Ingalls, A.; Craig, M.; Barlow, A. Entrepreneurial, Economic, and Social Well-Being Outcomes from an RCT of a Youth Entrepreneurship Education Intervention among Native American Adolescents. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 2383. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072383

AMA Style

Tingey L, Larzelere F, Goklish N, Rosenstock S, Jennings Mayo-Wilson L, Pablo E, Goklish W, Grass R, Sprengeler F, Parker S, Ingalls A, Craig M, Barlow A. Entrepreneurial, Economic, and Social Well-Being Outcomes from an RCT of a Youth Entrepreneurship Education Intervention among Native American Adolescents. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(7):2383. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072383

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tingey, Lauren; Larzelere, Francene; Goklish, Novalene; Rosenstock, Summer; Jennings Mayo-Wilson, Larissa; Pablo, Elliott; Goklish, Warren; Grass, Ryan; Sprengeler, Feather; Parker, Sean; Ingalls, Allison; Craig, Mariddie; Barlow, Allison. 2020. "Entrepreneurial, Economic, and Social Well-Being Outcomes from an RCT of a Youth Entrepreneurship Education Intervention among Native American Adolescents" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 17, no. 7: 2383. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072383

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