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Toxic Metal Implications on Agricultural Soils, Plants, Animals, Aquatic life and Human Health

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Department of Metallurgy, School of Mining, Metallurgy and Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and the Built Environment, University of Johannesburg, Auckland Park 2006, South Africa
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Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Mining, Metallurgy and Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and the Built Environment, University of Johannesburg, Auckland Park 2006, South Africa
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Department of Biotechnology & Food Technology, Faculty of Science, University of Johannesburg, Auckland Park 2006, South Africa
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South African Medical Research Council Centre for Tuberculosis Research, Division of Molecular Biology and Human Genetics, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch 7600, South Africa
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(7), 2204; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072204
Received: 12 February 2020 / Revised: 11 March 2020 / Accepted: 15 March 2020 / Published: 25 March 2020
The problem of environmental pollution is a global concern as it affects the entire ecosystem. There is a cyclic revolution of pollutants from industrial waste or anthropogenic sources into the environment, farmlands, plants, livestock and subsequently humans through the food chain. Most of the toxic metal cases in Africa and other developing nations are a result of industrialization coupled with poor effluent disposal and management. Due to widespread mining activities in South Africa, pollution is a common site with devastating consequences on the health of animals and humans likewise. In recent years, talks on toxic metal pollution had taken center stage in most scientific symposiums as a serious health concern. Very high levels of toxic metals have been reported in most parts of South African soils, plants, animals and water bodies due to pollution. Toxic metals such as Zinc (Zn), Lead (Pb), Aluminium (Al), Cadmium (Cd), Nickel (Ni), Iron (Fe), Manganese (Mn) and Arsenic (As) are major mining effluents from tailings which contaminate both the surface and underground water, soil and food, thus affecting biological function, endocrine systems and growth. Environmental toxicity in livestock is traceable to pesticides, agrochemicals and toxic metals. In this review, concerted efforts were made to condense the information contained in literature regarding toxic metal pollution and its implications in soil, water, plants, animals, marine life and human health. View Full-Text
Keywords: toxic metals; contamination; toxicity; human health toxic metals; contamination; toxicity; human health
MDPI and ACS Style

Okereafor, U.; Makhatha, M.; Mekuto, L.; Uche-Okereafor, N.; Sebola, T.; Mavumengwana, V. Toxic Metal Implications on Agricultural Soils, Plants, Animals, Aquatic life and Human Health. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 2204. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072204

AMA Style

Okereafor U, Makhatha M, Mekuto L, Uche-Okereafor N, Sebola T, Mavumengwana V. Toxic Metal Implications on Agricultural Soils, Plants, Animals, Aquatic life and Human Health. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(7):2204. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072204

Chicago/Turabian Style

Okereafor, Uchenna, Mamookho Makhatha, Lukhanyo Mekuto, Nkemdinma Uche-Okereafor, Tendani Sebola, and Vuyo Mavumengwana. 2020. "Toxic Metal Implications on Agricultural Soils, Plants, Animals, Aquatic life and Human Health" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 7: 2204. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072204

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