Next Article in Journal
The Antecedents and Consequences of Psychological Safety in Airline Firms: Focusing on High-Quality Interpersonal Relationships
Previous Article in Journal
Medical and Health Care Professionals’ Sexuality Education: State of the Art and Recommendations
Previous Article in Special Issue
Dynamic Analysis and Prediction of Food Nitrogen Footprint of Urban and Rural Residents in Shanghai
Open AccessArticle

Environmental Pollution Effect Analysis of Lead Compounds in China Based on Life Cycle

1
China Enfei Engineering Corporation, Beijing 100011, China
2
Chengdu University of Technology, Chengdu 610059, China
3
Chinese Academy Geological Sciences, Institute Mineral Resources, Beijing 100037, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(7), 2184; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072184
Received: 28 February 2020 / Revised: 20 March 2020 / Accepted: 24 March 2020 / Published: 25 March 2020
Environmental pollution caused by lead toxicity causes harm to human health. Lead pollution in the environment mainly comes from the processes of mining, processing, production, use, and recovery of lead. China is the world’s largest producer and consumer of refined lead. In this paper, the material flow analysis method is used to analyze the flow and direction of lead loss in four stages of lead production, manufacturing, use, and waste management in China from 1949 to 2017. The proportion coefficient of lead compounds in each stage of lead loss was determined. The categories and quantities of lead compounds discharged in each stage were calculated. The results show that in 2017, China emitted 2.1519 million tons of lead compounds. In the four stages of production, manufacturing, use, and waste management, 137.9 kilo tons, 209 kilo tons, 275 kilo tons, and 1.53 million tons were respectively discharged. The emissions in the production stage are PbS, PbO, PbSO4, PbO2, Pb2O3, and more. The emissions during the manufacturing phase are Pb, PbO, PbSO4, Pb2O3, Pb3O4, and more. The main emissions are Pb, PbO, Pb2O3, Pb3O4, and more. The main emissions in the waste management stage are PbS, Pb, PbO, PbSO4, PbO2, PbCO3, Pb2O3, Pb3O4, and more. Among them, the emissions of PbSO4, PbO, Pb, and PbO2 account for about 90%, which are the main environmental pollution emissions. The waste management stage is an important control source of lead compound emission and pollution. In view of these characteristics of the environmental pollution risk of lead compounds in China, the government should issue more targeted policies to control lead pollution. View Full-Text
Keywords: lead pollution; material flow analysis; emission inventory accounting; contamination control lead pollution; material flow analysis; emission inventory accounting; contamination control
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Yang, J.; Li, X.; Xiong, Z.; Wang, M.; Liu, Q. Environmental Pollution Effect Analysis of Lead Compounds in China Based on Life Cycle. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 2184.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop