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Open AccessArticle

Reconnaissance of Surface Water Estrogenicity and the Prevalence of Intersex in Smallmouth Bass (Micropterus Dolomieu) Inhabiting New Jersey

1
US Geological Survey, Leetown Science Center, Kearneysville, WV 25430, USA
2
US Geological Survey, New Jersey Water Science Center, Lawrence, NJ 08648, USA
3
New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, Division of Science and Research, Trenton, NJ 08625, USA
4
New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, Division of Water Monitoring and Standards, Trenton, NJ 08625, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(6), 2024; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17062024
Received: 15 January 2020 / Revised: 12 March 2020 / Accepted: 16 March 2020 / Published: 19 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Environment and Applied Ecology)
The observation of testicular oocytes in male fishes has been utilized as a biomarker of estrogenic endocrine disruption. A reconnaissance project led in the Northeastern United States (US) during the period of 2008–2010 identified a high prevalence of intersex smallmouth bass on or near US Fish & Wildlife Service National Wildlife Refuges that included the observation of 100% prevalence in smallmouth bass males collected from the Wallkill River, NJ, USA. To better assess the prevalence of intersex smallmouth bass across the state of New Jersey, a tiered reconnaissance approach was initiated during the fall of 2016. Surface water samples were collected from 101 (85 river, 16 lake/reservoir) sites across the state at base-flow conditions for estrogenicity bioassay screening. Detectable estrogenicity was observed at 90% of the sites and 64% were above the US Environmental Protection Agency trigger level of 1 ng/L. Median surface water estrogenicity was 1.8 ng/L and a maximum of 6.9 ng/L E2EqBLYES was observed. Adult smallmouth bass were collected from nine sites, pre-spawn during the spring of 2017. Intersex was identified in fish at all sites, and the composite intersex prevalence was 93.8%. Prevalence across sites ranged from 70.6% to 100%. In addition to intersex, there was detectable plasma vitellogenin in males at all sites. Total estrogenicity in surface water was determined at these fish collection sites, and notable change over time was observed. Correlation analysis indicated significant positive correlations between land use (altered land; urban + agriculture) and surface water estrogenicity. There were no clear associations between land use and organismal metrics of estrogenic endocrine disruption (intersex or vitellogenin). This work establishes a baseline prevalence of intersex in male smallmouth bass in the state of New Jersey at a limited number of locations and identifies a number of waterbodies with estrogenic activity above an effects-based threshold. View Full-Text
Keywords: intersex; endocrine disruption; estrogen; fish; smallmouth bass; bioassay; land use intersex; endocrine disruption; estrogen; fish; smallmouth bass; bioassay; land use
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MDPI and ACS Style

Iwanowicz, L.R.; Smalling, K.L.; Blazer, V.S.; Braham, R.P.; Sanders, L.R.; Boetsma, A.; Procopio, N.A.; Goodrow, S.; Buchanan, G.A.; Millemann, D.R.; Ruppel, B.; Vile, J.; Henning, B.; Abatemarco, J. Reconnaissance of Surface Water Estrogenicity and the Prevalence of Intersex in Smallmouth Bass (Micropterus Dolomieu) Inhabiting New Jersey. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 2024.

AMA Style

Iwanowicz LR, Smalling KL, Blazer VS, Braham RP, Sanders LR, Boetsma A, Procopio NA, Goodrow S, Buchanan GA, Millemann DR, Ruppel B, Vile J, Henning B, Abatemarco J. Reconnaissance of Surface Water Estrogenicity and the Prevalence of Intersex in Smallmouth Bass (Micropterus Dolomieu) Inhabiting New Jersey. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(6):2024.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Smalling, Kelly L.; Blazer, Vicki S.; Braham, Ryan P.; Sanders, Lakyn R.; Boetsma, Anna; Procopio, Nicholas A.; Goodrow, Sandra; Buchanan, Gary A.; Millemann, Daniel R.; Ruppel, Bruce; Vile, John; Henning, Brian; Abatemarco, John. 2020. "Reconnaissance of Surface Water Estrogenicity and the Prevalence of Intersex in Smallmouth Bass (Micropterus Dolomieu) Inhabiting New Jersey" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 17, no. 6: 2024.

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