Next Article in Journal
Exploring Mediation Roles of Child Screen-Viewing between Parental Factors and Child Overweight in Taiwan
Next Article in Special Issue
Content Analysis of Electronic Nicotine Delivery System Publications in Core Clinical Journals from 2012 to 2018
Previous Article in Journal
Footprint Curvature in Spanish Women: Implications for Footwear Fit
Previous Article in Special Issue
Use of Electronic Cigarettes in Smoke-Free Spaces by Smokers: Results from the 2014–2015 Population Assessment on Tobacco and Health Study
Open AccessArticle

Metal Concentration Assessment in the Urine of Cigarette Smokers Who Switched to Electronic Cigarettes: A Pilot Study

Institute for Ecology of Industrial Areas, 6, Kossutha St., 40-844 Katowice, Poland
Department of General and Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Science in Sosnowiec, Medical University of Silesia, Jagiellonska 4 St., 41-200 Sosnowiec, Poland
Institute of Environmental Engineering, Polish Academy of Sciences, M. Skłodowskiej-Curie 34 Str., 41-819 Zabrze, Poland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(6), 1877;
Received: 4 February 2020 / Revised: 10 March 2020 / Accepted: 12 March 2020 / Published: 13 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electronic Cigarettes: Good and Bad Impacts)
Background: E-cigarettes (ECs) seem to be a less harmful alternative for conventional cigarettes, however, very little is still known about the exposure to some elements, which are the components of this device and may contaminate the nicotine liquid. The aim of this study is to assess whether e-cigarette users are more exposed to 12 elements detected in aerosol than non-smokers and conventional cigarette smokers, using their concentrations in urine as exposure biomarkers. Methods: A cross-sectional, group-based survey was carried out using 90 volunteers classified into groups of non-smokers, EC-only users, dual EC users-cigarette smokers and cigarette-only smokers. Using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS), Cr, Ni, Co, Ag, In, Mn, Ba, Sr, V, Sb, Cd and Pb levels were measured in spot urine samples. Among the selected groups, a comparison was made using the analysis of covariance and correlations with EC usage pattern were assessed by multiple linear regression. Results: Element concentrations in urine of EC-users were not significantly different from the levels found in non-smokers and smokers. Only in the case of Ba, Ni and Sb was a significant correlation found in relation to some e-cigarette usage patterns. Conclusion: Transfer of the investigated elements to the EC aerosol was not found to be a substantial source of exposure in EC users who quitted smoking. View Full-Text
Keywords: electronic cigarettes; metals; elements; urine electronic cigarettes; metals; elements; urine
MDPI and ACS Style

Prokopowicz, A.; Sobczak, A.; Szdzuj, J.; Grygoyć, K.; Kośmider, L. Metal Concentration Assessment in the Urine of Cigarette Smokers Who Switched to Electronic Cigarettes: A Pilot Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 1877.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Search more from Scilit
Back to TopTop