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Shift Work and Prostate Cancer: An Updated Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

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Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, School of Medicine, University of Granada, Avenida de la Investigación 11, Edificio A, 8ª planta, 18016 Granada, Spain
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Service of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Hospital Clínico San Cecilio, 18016 Granada, Spain
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Centros de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), 28029 Madrid, Spain
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Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria de Granada (ibs.GRANADA), 18014 Granada, Spain
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Department of Epidemiology of Chronic Diseases, National Centre for Epidemiology, Carlos III Institute of Health, 28029 Madrid, Spain
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(4), 1345; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17041345
Received: 20 December 2019 / Revised: 16 February 2020 / Accepted: 18 February 2020 / Published: 19 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Occupational Safety and Health)
The International Agency of Research in Cancer (IARC) has recently confirmed shift work as a type 2A carcinogen. The results presented in published epidemiological studies regarding prostate cancer are inconsistent and the association remains controversial. The aims of this study were: (a) to investigate the possible association between shift work and prostate cancer incidence, identifying possible sources of heterogeneity; and (b) to analyze the potential effect of publication bias. A search for cohort and case-control studies published from January 1980 to November 2019 was conducted. The quality of the articles was assessed using the Newcastle–Ottawa Scale. Pooled OR were calculated using random-effects models. Heterogeneity was evaluated using Cochran’s Q test and data were stratified by potential sources of heterogeneity. Publication bias was analyzed. Eighteen studies were included. No association was found between rotating/night-shift work and prostate cancer, pooled OR 1.07 (95%CI 0.99 to 1.15), I2 = 45.7%, p = 0.016. Heterogeneity was eliminated when only cohort studies (pooled OR 1.03; 95%CI 0.96 to 1.10; I2 = 18.9%, p = 0.264) or high-quality studies (pooled OR 0.99; 95%CI 0.89 to 1.08; I2 = 0.0%, p = 0.571) were considered. A publication bias was detected. An association between shift work and prostate cancer cannot be confirmed with the available current data. Future analytical studies assessing more objective homogeneous exposure variables still seem necessary. View Full-Text
Keywords: occupational health; night work; rotating shift work; circadian disruption; heterogeneity analysis; prostate cancer occupational health; night work; rotating shift work; circadian disruption; heterogeneity analysis; prostate cancer
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rivera-Izquierdo, M.; Martínez-Ruiz, V.; Castillo-Ruiz, E.M.; Manzaneda-Navío, M.; Pérez-Gómez, B.; Jiménez-Moleón, J.J. Shift Work and Prostate Cancer: An Updated Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 1345. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17041345

AMA Style

Rivera-Izquierdo M, Martínez-Ruiz V, Castillo-Ruiz EM, Manzaneda-Navío M, Pérez-Gómez B, Jiménez-Moleón JJ. Shift Work and Prostate Cancer: An Updated Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(4):1345. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17041345

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rivera-Izquierdo, Mario, Virginia Martínez-Ruiz, Elena Mercedes Castillo-Ruiz, Miriam Manzaneda-Navío, Beatriz Pérez-Gómez, and José Juan Jiménez-Moleón. 2020. "Shift Work and Prostate Cancer: An Updated Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 4: 1345. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17041345

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